Chapter 2: Democratic Change and the Change to Democracy

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Chapter(2:(Democratic(Change(and(the(Change(to(Democracy(
Democratic*transitions*often*grow*out*of*extended*negotiations*between*ongoing*
authoritarian*government*and*opposition*leaders.*
The*consolidation*of*democracy*reduces*military*rule.*
Democracy*Defined*
Bare*bones*definition:*a*political*system*that*holds*fair,*contested*elections*on*a*
regular*basis*with*universal*adult*suffrage*(semi?democracies)*
Liberal*democracy:*a*political*system*that*conforms*to*the*following*conditions*
1. Most*of*the*country’s*leading*government*officials*are*elected*
2. There*is*universal*suffrage*
3. Elections*are*largely*free*of*fraud*
4. Opposition*party*candidates*have*a*realistic*chance*of*being*elected*
5. Civil*Liberties*are*respected*
Substantive*democracy:*real*democracy*requires*not*only*fair*elections*and*proper*
government*procedures,*but*also*fair*and*just*government*policy*outcomes*
Procedural*democracy*also*does*not*guarantee*a*just*society.**
Democratic*Transition*and*Consolidation*
The*transition*period*begins*when*an*authoritarian*government*shows*the*first*
observable*signs*of*collapsing.*
Only*when*democratic*institutions,*practices*and*values*have*become*deeply*
ingrained*in*society*can*we*say*that*a*country*has*experiences*democratic*
consolidation.*
Internal*factors*causing*democracy*to*fail*
Ethnic*divisions*
A*failure*to*build*strong*political*institutions*
Authoritarian*Beginnings*
Democracy*has*not*always*been*ideal*
It*was*not*until*the*80’s*that*democracy*once*again*became*the*norm.*
Justifying*Authoritarian*Rule*
Some*worried*that*democratic*governments*would*not*be*able*to*handle*all*the*
demands*of*the*citizens*
Socioeconomic*modernization*is*necessary*to*establish*democracy.*
International*Causes*and*Consequences*of*the*Third*Wave*
Marxism?Leninism*was*discredited**
Cold*War*permitted*the*U.S.*to*be*more*consistent*in*its*advocacy*of*political*
freedom.*
The*Prerequisites*of*Democracy*in*Individual*Countries*
Social*and*Economic*Modernization*
Democracy*is*more*prevalent*in*industrialized*countries*
There*is*a*strong*correlation*between*the*extent*of*a*country’s*mass*
communications*and*its*degree*of*democracy*
Democracy*correlates*most*strongly*with*higher*levels*of*literacy*and*
education*
Middle*income*countries*are*frequently*less*stable*and*more*prone*to*
dictatorship*
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