CHAPTER 3: NATIONAL OR DOMESTIC LEVEL ARGUMENTS

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4 Apr 2012
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CHAPTER 3: NATIONAL OR DOMESTIC LEVEL ARGUMENTS
System level theories consider all governments to have the same goals
and to think and act in the same manor.
Domestic politics ! an elaboration of social purposes, a better
understanding of why states react differently to similar stimuli
Depend on political culture, regime type, ideology, domestic political
instability, the economic characteristics
Cultural Based Theories: different countries value different things
Culture changed slowly, foreign policy changed quickly
Ideologies provide an idea of what the world should look like, different
ideologies = conflict.
Kissinger divided the world into 3 sections.
Democratic, economically advanced ! leadership is
bureaucratic and pragmatic, more likely to be “rational,
unitary actors”
Marxist- Leninist Ideology ! objective factors, focused on
achieving the end of the global revolution
Charismatic Revolutionary Countries ! terrorism
Liberalism and Theories of the Behavior of Democratic States
Wilson believed the best way to end war is for everyone to be
a democracy
Democracies do not find each other
Democracies take extreme positions
Politicians in democracies oversell their ideas because they
have to convince the majority of their population of the idea
Policies of democracies are difficult for other states to
interpret
Democracies move slowly during normal times, but quickly
during crisis
Liberalism in International Relations
The Theory of totalitarian states view states as largely
separate from society
Marxists view the state as ruled by the capitalist class
Macroeconomic policies treat all actors the same way
Externalization: occurs when a society is becoming unstable and in
order to reconsolidate their control, elite policy makers instigate an
international crisis to divert the public from domestic problems
Leads to rally around the flag approaches
Leads to more foreign engagements
Domestic level theories are not as generable as system level theories
because they allow for variety in policies between states.
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