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Psychology (1,418)
PSYC 100 (131)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Jens C Pruessner

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9.1 What shapes us during childhood? Develo psy: study of changes over life span in physiology, cognition, emotion and social behavior. consistency of pattern suggests that genes determine order .  Development starts in womb: sperm + egg zygoteembryofetus o Hormonal influences IQ, weight, cognitive and behavioral outcomes o Exposure teratogens: harm embryo or fetus, “monster makers,”  Bio and environment influence developmental milestones: environment influences what happens throughout development, developmental milestones reached at different paces depending on culture. Dynamic systems theory: development is self-organizing process, new forms of behavior emerge through consistent interactions between biological being and cultural/environmental contexts, developmental advances is through active exploration and feedback from environment  Brain development promotes learning: mind develops adaptively, new and useful skills appear at appropriate times. Born with sense of taste, touch, sight, smell, sound. At birth, brain is sufficiently developed to support basic reflexes, but further development necessary for cognitive development to occur. o Myelination and neuronal connections: specific areas with brain mature and become functional; regions of brain learn to communicate with one another through synaptic connections. Myelination helps brain circuits mature, increasing speed with which fibers transmit signals. Myelinated axons form synapses with other neurons. Synaptic pruning: synaptic connection in brain that are used are preserved, those that are not used are lost. Few synaptic connections made if brain not stimulated by environment. Though most neurons formed at birth, brain’s physical development continues through growth of neurons and new connections; size increase due to myelination, new synaptic connections. o Sensitive learning periods: time periods when specific skills develop most easily; e.g. language  Children develop attachment and emotion regulation: socioemotional development includes maturation of skills and abilities that enable people to live successfully in world with other people. Emotion regulation: productively expressing and coping with emotions without hurting yourself or others, not inborn, shaped by environment, bonding with caregivers. Attachment: strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances, adaptive, facilitates survival for infant and parental investment. o Attachment in other species: birds attach themselves to adult; imprinting. Monkeys prefer soft mother to feeding mother, contact comfort more important than mother-as-food theory. Some keys behaviors are not genetically programmed, they are learned from caregiver. o Attachment style: separation anxiety occurs in all human cultures. Secure attachment: infant confident enough in unfamiliar environment as long as caregiver is present. Insecure attachment: avoiding contact with caregiver, alternating between approach and avoidance behaviors. o Chemistry of attachment: infant sucking triggers release of oxytocin, stimulates biological processes in mother that move milk into ducts. 9.2 As children, how do we learn about the world?  Perception introduces the world: Primarily through senses, observe/evaluate objects/events o Infant research techniques: preferential-looking technique – which thing they find more interesting. Orienting reflex: tendency to pay more attention to new stimuli o Vision: visual acuity measures; infants respond to high-contrast better o Auditory perception: can perceive sound and know where it is coming from, some memory/preference  Memory improves during childhood: ribbon/kicking experiment showed infants knew better when oler o Infantile amnesia: inability to remember events from early childhood o Inaccurate memory: source amnesia and confabulation  Piaget emphasizes stages of cognitive development: four stages of development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concerete operational, formal operational. It is not that children know less than adults, just that their views of how the world works are based on different sets of assumptions. We form new schemas during each stage of development, each stage builds on previous one through two learning processes: assimilation: placing new experience into existing schema, and accommodation: create new schema or dramatically alter existing one to include new info that would not fit into old schema. o Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years): infants acquire info about world through senses and motor skills, reflexive responses develop into more deliberate actions through development and refinement of schemas. Object permanence: understanding that object continues to exist even when it can’t be seen. o Preoperational stage (2-7 years): children think symbolically about objects, but they reason based on intuition and superficial appearance rather than logic. Lack of conservation skills due to centration; cannot think about more than one detail of problem-solving a task at a time because child centers o only one detail of problem, limiting ability to think logically. Egocentrism: tendency to view world through own experiences o Concrete operational stage (7-12 years): children begin to think about and understand logical operations, no longer fooled by appearances. o Formal operational stage (12 years – adulthood): think abstractly, formulate/test hypotheses through deductive logic, using info to systematically find answers to problems o Challenges to Piaget’s theory: framework leaves little room for differing cognitive strategies/skills among individuals/cultures. Children move between stages, different areas in brain responsible for different skills, development does not follow strict stages. Not all adults are formal operational thinkers, some still concrete operational. Piaget underestimated age at which skills develop. o Understanding the laws of nature: physics: infants use movement to infer that objects moving together are continuous, whereas two stationary objects may or may not be continuous o Understanding the laws of nature: mathematics: children understand quantity – concepts more than and less than – in terms of length, not in terms of numbers, e.g. lines of marbles. Different results when M&Ms were used  We learn from interacting with others: o Theory of mind: ability to explain and predict others’ behavior as result of recognizing their mental state. Infants know actions can be intentional o Moral reasoning and moral emotions: moral development is way people learn to decide between behaviors with competing social outcomes, choices that affect others. Moral reasoning depends on cognitive processes. Preconventional: earliest level of moral development, self-interest and event outcomes determine what is moral. Conven
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