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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

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PSYC 100
Jens C Pruessner

Social Psyc: according to psychologists, nothing wrong w/ Abu Ghraib guards; normal people in overwhelming situations. Stanford study, guards/prisoners showed speed at which normal students  social roles. 12.1 How do we form impressions of others? Behaviors more understandable in context. Social psyc: how we influence thoughts, feelings, actions. Humans not flawed/evil, distinct individuals influenced by social context.  Nonverbal actions/expressions affect first impressions: nonverbal behavior (body language): facial expressions, gestures, mannerisms, movements by which one communicates. Thin slices of behavior: quick viewsaccurate judgments. Important nonverbal cue is gait. o Facial expressions: babies prefer faces; give info about emotional state, interest, trust.  We make attributions (Heider): explanations for events/actions, inc. others‟ behavior. Motivated to draw inferences in part by basic need for order/predictability. Just world hypothesis: attributions about victim of violent act, make mistreatment seem understandable/justified, make world seem safer/saner. o Attributional dimensions: personal (internal/dispositional): internal characteristics (abilities, traits, moods, efforts). Situational (external): outside events (luck, accidents, others‟ actions). Weiner: attributions vary on other dimensions (permanent, controllable). o Attributions about self: self-serving bias: attribute failures to situational factors not our fault, attribute success to personal, permanent factors, gives us credit o Attributional bias: fundamental attribution error: in explaining others‟ behavior, tendency to overemphasize personality, underestimate situational factors. Jones: correspondence bias: tendency to expect behaviors of others to correspond w/ beliefs/personalities, when we make attributions about selves, tend to focus on situations. Actor/observer discrepancy: when interpreting our behavior, focus on situations, when interpreting others‟, focus on dispositions.  Stereotypes based on automatic categorization: cognitive schemas that help organize info about people on basis of membership in groups. Heuristic thinkingquick decisions, mental shortcuts allow for fast processing of social info, automatic. Stereotypes are neutral, reflect efficient cognitive processes. Used to streamline formation of impressions, deal with limitations inherent in mental processing. Affect formation of impressions. Stereotypes self-maintained by biased confirmation. Subtyping: putting a person in a special category rather than altering stereotype. o Self-fulfilling prophecy: behave to confirm expectations. „bloomers‟ show higher IQ. F acted differently when speaking to M they thought were attractive. Stereotype threat: affects group w/ neg stereotype, e.g., F asked to indicate gender perform worse. 3 mechanisms lower performance after threat: physiological stress, overthink performance, energy to suppress neg thoughts.  Stereotypesprejudice: negative feelings/opinions/beliefs assoc. w/ stereotype. Discrimination: inappropriate/unjustified treatment of people as result of prejudice. o Ingroup/outgroup bias: group membership important in social ID, self-esteem. Predisposed to be wary of others who do not belong to group, outgroups more dangerous in evolution. Once we categorize others as ingroup/outgroup, treat accordingly. Outgroup homogeneity effect: view outgroup as less varied. Ingroup favoritism: privilege members of ingroup (adaptive) o Stereotypes/perception: stereotypes influence basic perceptual processes (experiment w/ black/ white faces holding tools/guns). Training can override effects of stereotypes. o Inhibiting stereotypes: occur w/o awareness/intent. Categorizing not necessarilymistreating. Can alter automatic stereotyping–e.g, showing admired blacks, telling people test scores. Frontal lobes (control thoughts/behaviors) must override emotional response in amygdala (detect threats)  Cooperation reduces prejudice: working together to greater purpose~overcome intergroup hostility. Superordinate goal (requiring people to cooperate) reduce hostility btwn groups, break down subgroup distinctions, become one larger group o Jigsaw classroom: person-to-person interaction brings groups together. Aronson: students work in mixed groups; each member expert on aspect. Children in jigsaw like each other more, high self-esteem. Communal work toward superordinate goals can reduce prejudice and benefit all. 12.2 How do attitudes guide behavior? Evaluations of objects, events, ideas, shaped by social context, play important role in how we evaluate/interact with others.  We form attitudes via experience/socialization: people develop neg attitudes quicker than pos ones. mere exposure effect – more exposurelike. Attitudes can be conditioned, ads (classical), studying (operant).  Behaviors are consistent w/ strong attitudes: personally relevant attitude more likely to predict behavior, more specific attitude more predictive. Attitude accessibility: ease in retrieving attitude from behavior, predicts behavior consistent w/ attitude. Easily activated attitudes more stable, predictive, resistant.  Attitudes can be explicit/implicit: explicit attitudes: those you know about, can report. Implicit: influence feelings/behavior at unconscious level. Implicit Association Test better predictor of behavior  Discrepanciesdissonance: Festinger theory of cognitive dissonance: uncomfortable mental state due to contradiction btwn 2 attitudes, attitude/behavior. Assumes dissonance anxiety/tension  displeasuremotivates people to reduce dissonance, by changing attitudes/behaviors. Dissonance between what you do and what you think you are. o Postdecisional dissonance: when person holds pos attitudes about different options, only choose one, focus on its pos aspects, non-chosen options‟ neg aspects (automatic, min cog processing). o Insufficient justification: participants paid $1 to lie about task rated it more favorably than those paid $20 - insufficient monetary justification for lyingchanged attitudes about dull task. Those paid more did not experience dissonance, did not have to change attitudes. Shows that to get people to change attitudes, change behaviors first, using min incentives. o Justifying effort: going through pain to join groupdissonance, resolved by inflating importance and commitment of group (F reading obscene vs. mild words, enjoyed presentation better)  Attitudes change via persuasion: active/conscious effort to change attitude via message. People pay attention, understand, find it convincing, memorable. Factors: source (credible/attractive), content (strong arguments to emotions, mere exposure), receiver (gullible). Elaboration likelihood model: persuasive communicationattitude change in 2 ways: central (people motivated, able to process infostrong attitudes) and peripheral route (min processing,impulsive action, attitudes are weaker). 12.3 How do others influence us? Power of social situation is very strong  Groups influence individual behavior o Social facilitation: presence of others enhances performance. Zajonc 3 basic steps: all animals genetically predisposed to be aroused by presence of othersemit dominant response. If dominant response easy, then others enhances performance, vv o Social loafing: work less h-ard in group. Efforts pooled, do not feel personally responsible. Won‟t happen when people know individual efforts monitored, must feel personally responsible o Deindividuation: reduced i
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