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Chapter 2

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PSYC 100
James Mac Dougall

Chapter 2 Research MethodologyScientists study why we do the things we doScientific methodprocess by which they studyoSystematicit proceeds in orderly steps that are plannedoExplain phenomenathings that can be observedWhat is Scientific InquiryWay of finding answers to empirical questionsUse scientific method a systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena to answer questions about what happens when it happens what causes it and whyDependent on theories hypotheses and researchoTheorya model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future eventshow something worksoHypothesisa specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correctoResearchscientific process that involves the systematic and careful collection of dataoDataobjective observations or measurementsoAnalyzeuse data with appropriate statistical techniques to draw conclusions oFurther inquirysubmit results to research journalspresent themoReplicationrepetition of an experiment to confirm the resultsTheories are good if they generate a hypothesis or variety of testable hypothesesthoie 20 CenturyJean Piaget proposed a theory of infantchild development that suggested cognitive development occurs in a fixed series of stages from birth to adolescenceoie Sigmund Freuds The Interpretation of Dreams outlined that all dreams represent fulfillments of unconscious wishesvery few testable hypothesesnot a good theorymany findings are the result of serendipityunexpected results to something importantoie Harvard 1950physiologists Torsten Wiesel Sweden and David Hubel Canada recorded activity of cats nerve cells in brain areas associated with visionhow information travels from eye to brain thinking certain parts of the brain would react to looking at dotsnothing happenedmachine jammedin between imagerapid action of cellscells respond to lines and edgesreceived Novel PrizeWhat are the types of studies in psychological researchoThree types DESCRIPTIVE CORRELATIONAL EXPERIMENTALoInvolve variables something in the world that can be measured and that can varyoEither measuredmanipulatedoIdentified through operational definitions identifyquantify variables so they can be measuredoDescriptive Studiesaka observational studiesodata collected involves observingnoting behaviours to analyze it objectivelyoie measuring the time it takes for people in a normal conversation types of foods people eat in a cafeteriaoat regular time intervalsshort as seconds to as long as entire lifetimesotwo typesnaturalistic observation and participant observationNaturalistic Observationa passive descriptive study in which observers do not change or alter ongoing behaviourParticipant Observationa type of descriptive study in which the researcher is actively involved in the situationProblemsresearcher may lose objectivityoParticipants may change behaviouroAdvantagesvaluable in early stages of research in real world settingoDisadvantageserror in observation because of observer biasbehaviour changeoLongitudinal Studiesinvolve observing and classifying developmental changes that occur in the same people over time wither with no intervention by the observer or with intervention by the observeroie how intellectual abilities change over the adult years when theyre young adults and then reassess every 5 years until old ageoadvantagesprovide information about the effects of age on same people allowing to see for developmental changesodisadvantagesexpensive takes a long time may lose participants over timeoCrosssectional studiesinvolve observingclassifying developmental changes that occur in different groups of people at the same timeoAdvantagesfasterless expensive than longitudinal studiesoDisadvantagesunidentified variables may be involved third variable problemoie comparing the intellectual abilities of young adults and older adults in terms of their scoresoObserver Biassystematic errors in observation that occur because of an observers expectationsoEspecially problematic if cultural norms favour inhibitingexpressing certain behavioursoie if observers are coding malesfemales expressionsmore likely to classify the womans as sad because men are less likely to show sadness they may think its annoyance or something elseoobservers bias can change behaviour observed in experimenter expectancy
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