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Chapter 3

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PSYC 100
James Mac Dougall

Chapter 3 Biological FoundationsSynesthesiacrosssensory experiencesoie road signs tasting like pistachio ice cream and ear wax visual image has a tasteoie any personal name has a taste ie John is cornbreadoie each day of the week is coloured Monday is red Tuesday is indigo December if yellow January is redocolour can evoke smells sights evoke sounds numbers come in coloursoexperiences are always idiosyncraticGenetic basis of psychological scienceoUntil few years ago researched focused on whether people possessed certain types of genes genes for psychological disorders oGeneticsdescribes how characteristics are passed along to offspring through inheritanceAlso process involved in turning genes on or offoEnvironment affects our geneshow they are expressedhow they influence our thoughts feelings behaviouroGenetic predispositions important in determining environments we select for ourselvesBiology environment mutually influence each otheroHow do basic physiological processes starting with genetics affect thoughts feelings behaviouroHow do physiological processes interact with the environment to nurture influences natureo2001Human Genome Projectmapping entire structure of human genetic materialmap entire structure of DNAprecise order of molecules that make up each of the genes in all 23 pairs of chromosomeshave fewer than 30000 geneshuman complexity not due to the number of genes but the way they are expressedregulatednow one is done comparing different human genomes to make sure its the samehow genesvariations interact to affect healthillnessoevery cell in the body is genome for making entire organismgenomemaster blueprint with detailed instructions for everything you need to do in the bodygenome provides option environment determines which option to takeocell has chromosomes structures within the cell body that are made up of genes humans23 pairs of chromosomes half from mom half from dadogenes unit of heredity that determines a particular characteristic in an organismcomponents of DNA deoxyribonucleic acidtwo strands of molecules sequence specifies exact instruction to manufacture a distinct proteinoproteinsthousands of different typesbasic chemicals that make up the structure of cellsdirect their activitiesogene involved in producing proteins to carry a taskenvironment determines which proteins are producedwhen theyre producedie butterflies become colourfuldrab depending on the season its born in Heredity involves passing along genes through reproductionoHeredity discovered by Gregor Mendel in 1866Monk in Austrian monastery in Brno now Czech RepublicDeveloped selective breeding to strictly control which plants bred with other plantsPea plants either only purple flowers or white flowersCross pollinatedst1 generation completely white or purplend2 generation of 100 75 purple flowers 25 white31 ratio repeated itself multiple timesdeduced plants contained serpeate units genes that had different versions white and purplesome dominant and some recessiveodominant genea gene that is expressed in the offspring whenever it is presentorecessive genea gene that is expressed only when it is matched with a similar gene from another parentogenotypethe genetic constitution determined at the moment of conceptionophenotypeobservable physical characteristics that result from both genetic and environmental influences genes affect phenotypedominant or recessiveenvironment affects phenotypeie heightskin colour inherited nutrition habits leads to size increasedecrease and sunlight can change skin colour environmental influence on phenotypephenylketonuriainfants unable to break apart phenylalaninecan cause serious brain damageopolygenic effectsaccording to Mendel traits are determined by one gene eachNOT truepolygenicinfluenced by many genesie skin colour is polygenicGenotypic variation is created by sexual reproduction
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