Textbook Notes (363,475)
Canada (158,377)
Psychology (1,390)
PSYC 100 (131)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6.doc

22 Pages
Unlock Document

McGill University
PSYC 100
James Mac Dougall

Chapter 6LearningBF Skinner did not like introspection process of thinking about ones own thoughts and feelings and then talking about them as a way of making them making them public and available for others to studyoUsed behaviourist theoryobservable actionsoBelieved providing incentives for performing specific actionsoUsing pigeons and rats discovered basic rules for learningoLed to radical ideas about behaviourismdismissed importance of mental states and questioned philosophical concepts like free willoApplication of basic learning principles could create a better more humane worldoie utopia world where children grow only be incentives not punishmentsHow did the behavioural study of learning developLearningan enduring change in behaviour resulting from experienceoAnimals benefit from experience so behaviour is better adapted to the environmentLearningcrucial for all animals to surviveLearningcentral to all aspects of human existencebasic abilities walking speaking to complex abilities flying planesLearning shapes aspects of daily life clothing choice musical tastes social rules cultural valuesEssence of learningunderstand how events are relatedAssociations develop through conditioning process in which environmental stimuli and behavioural responses become connectedoTwo types of conditioningClassical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioningwhen we learn two types of events go together ie scary movies and faster heart rateOperant conditioning or instrumental conditioningwhen we learn that a behaviour leads to a particular outcome ie studyingbetter gradesLearning theory became big because introspection became less likedFreudian ideas were theorizingverbal report techniques dream analysis free association to assess unconscious mental processesoWatson argued Freudian theory was unscientificmeaninglessobservable behaviour the only valid indicator of psychological activityoHe acknowledged thoughts and beliefs exist but believed that they could not be studied by using scientific methodWatson founded behaviourismbased on belief that animals and humans are born with potential to learn about anythingoJohn Lockes tabula rasa Latin blank slateinfants born with knowing nothing and all knowledge is acquired through sensory experiencesoBehaviourismenvironment and its associated effects on animals were sole determinants of learningoDominant paradigm in North AmericaBehavioural responses are conditionedWatson developed ideas of behaviourism after reading Ivan Pavlovs work on digestive systemoSalivary reflexautomatic and unlearned response that occurs when food stimulus is presented to a hungry animaloDogs saliva measured when different foods brought to themoDogs would salivate before they tasted the food the moment the technicians walked into the room oUnlike inborn reflexes salivation at the sight of a personbowl not automaticis acquired through experiencePavlovs experimentsoA neutral stimulus ie clicking of metronome presented along with stimulus that reliable produces reflex ie foodoConditioning trialthe pairing is repeated a number of timesoCritical trialsmetronome sound is presented along and salivary reflex is measuredoTherefore metronome sound should produce salivationoClassical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning a type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that responseoUnconditioned response URa response that does not have to be learned such as a reflex ie salivation produced by food automatic behaviour reflexoUnconditioned stimulus USa stimulus that elicits a response such as a reflex without any prior learning ie the foodoConditioned stimulus CSa stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place ie the clicking of the metronome which only produces salivation after trainingoConditioned response CRa response to a conditioned stimulus that has been learned ie the salivary reflex only from the metronome oConditioned response is usually weaker than the unconditioned responseAcquisition extinction and spontaneous recoveryoDarwins On the Origin of SpeciesPavlov believed conditioning is the basis for how animals learn to adapt to their environmentsoBy learning to predict what objects bring pleasure or pain animals acquire new adaptive behavioursoAcquisitionthe gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuliCritical to acquisitioncontiguitylearned association that the stimuli occur together in timeStrongest conditioning when very brief delay between CS and USoExtinctiona process in which the conditioned response is weakened when
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 100

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.