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Chapter 14

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PSYC 100
James Mac Dougall

Chapter 14Psychological disordersCapras syndromeotherwise perfectly lucid person believe a family memberfriend has been replaced by an identical looking imposteroRelated to schizophreniabrain injuriesoWilliam HirsteinVS Ramachandran studied 30year old Brazilian man DS who developed Capras after brain injury in traffic accidentBelieved father was imposterTests showed he could recognize faces discriminate different emotionsLacked ability to link emotional responses to familiar facesoOften people deny having the diseaseoAfter jailing and then treatment was able to go back homePsychological disordersoEnvironmental factors also contributeoPsychopathologya disorder of the mindo1 in 5 Canadians have some sort of mental disorder mostly mood disorders impulse control disorders anxiety disorders substance abuse disordersogender related womendepression anxiety disorders menantisocial personality disorder autismHow are psychological disorders conceptualized and classifiedSometimes dependent on the culture and their common ritualsQuestions to askoDoe the behaviour deviate from cultural normsoIs the behaviour maladaptiveoIs the behaviour causing the individual personal distressMaladaptive is better than deviant someone who washes their hands a lot can be deviant but one who unnecessarily does so until the hands are rawmaladaptivePsychological disorders are classified into categoriesEtiologyfactors that contribute to the development of a disorderEtiology and treatments make it necessary to categories disorders Emil Kraepelin recognized that not all patients with mental disorders suffer from the same disorder therefore grouped them based on symptomsDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM was first categorization of disorders in 1952oStarted by focusing on causes of disorders but later moved to observable symptomsoPatients who cannot receive single label is classified through multiaxial system the system used in the DSM that provides assessment along five axes describing important mental health factorsoDimensions which allow patient to be completely diagnosed Clinical disordersMental retardation or personality disordersMedical conditionsPsychosocial problemsGlobal or overall assessment of how well the person is functioningMultiaxial classification system for DSMIVTRAxis IClinical disorders and other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention schizophrenia mood disorders anxiety disorders sexualgender disorders sleep disorders eating disordersAxis IIMental retardation and personality disorders antisocial personality disorder paranoid personality disorder borderline personality disorderAxis IIIGeneral medical conditions that may be relevant to mental disorders cancer epilepsy obesity Parkinsons disorder Alzheimers diseaseAxis IVPsychosocialenvironmental problems that might affect the diagnosis treatment prognosis of mental disorders unemployment divorce legal problems homelessness poverty parental overprotectionAxis VGlobal assessment of functioning social psychological occupational rating on a scale from 1100 with 1 representing danger of hurting self or others and 100 meaning superior functioning in wide range of areasPsychological disorders must be assessedProcess of examining persons mental functionspsychological healthassessment in psychology examination of a persons mental state to diagnose possible psychological disordersGoals in assessmentoDiagnosisneeded to correctly identify treatmentUsually ongoing assessment for mental healthInitial assessment can be mental status exam for snapshot of psychological functioningwhat mental impairments are due to psychological conditioning or physical conditionCan be clinical interview oPrognosis Structured versus unstructured interviewsoMost interviews are unstructured topics of discussion vary as interviewer probes different aspects of persons problemsHighly flexiblego along with the things that are uncoveredoStructured interviewsStandardized questions are asked in same order each timeAnswers are coded according to predefined formulaDiagnosis based on answers Common interviewStructured Clinical Interview for DSMStarts with general questions then gets more specificTypes of testingoObserving behaviourExamplesomeone who avoids eye contact may suffer from social anxietyEyes that dart around nervouslyparanoid
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