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Chapter 11

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PSYC 100
James Mac Dougall

Chapter 11Human DevelopmentDevelopmental psychologythe study of the changes in physiology cognition and social behaviour over the lifespanWhat shapes a childDuring prenatal period body develops in fixed sequenceoDepends on genetic instructionsEye contact made quickly after birthFirst social smile6 weeks oldLearn to roll over sit up crawl stand walk talkEnvironment influences developmentoDifferent milestones reached depending on cultureoHealthy children in Uganda walk at 10 months those in France at 15 monthsoDue to different patterns in infant careoie children carried or not sleeping with parents sleeping on backs or stomachs North American parents sleeping on back reduces suffocation risksothose who sleep on backs crawl later than stomach oChildren crawl faster if theyre put on the floor sometimes unhygienicDevelopment starts in the wombDevelopment starts at the moment of conceptionZygotefirst cell of life2 weeks2 monthsembryo organs2 months fetus physical growthfinal touchesphysical developmentogenes in combination with environment in womb govern human nervous system prenatal developmentobrains nerve cells develop in specific sequence for first 7 months of gestationbasic brain areasin first 4 weekscells forming cortex visible at week 7thalamus at 10left and right hemisphere at week 127 monthsfetus has working nervous systembirthbrain complex with cortical layers connections amongst neurons myelinationcontinues to develop into old ageohormones circulating in womb influence developing fetusif mothers thyroid doesnt produce sufficient hormones child has change of lower IQ and diminished intellectual developmentmothers emotional state affects developing fetusif mother is anxiousupset fetus gets lots of stress hormoneswhich interfere with normal development producing low birth weight and negative cognitive and physical outcomes that persist throughout lifeteratogensoteratogensenvironmental agents that harm the embryo or fetusocan impair physicalcognitive development in wombodrugs alcohol bacteria viruses chemicalsosome physical effects obvious at birth some disorders involving languagereasoning not apparent until child is of ageoextent of teratogen effects depends on length or amount of exposureoexcessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy leads to fetal alcohol syndrome FAS symptomslow birth weight facehead abnormalities slight mental retardation behaviouralcognitive problemsfor women who binge drink heavily drink even if they drink small amountscauses permanent brain damage especially in neocortex hippocampus cerebellumimpairments negatively affect learning attention inhibitionregulation of behaviour memory causal reasoning motor performancerate of FAS in Canada13 of 1000 birthsouse of recreational drugs during pregnancyopiates cocaine cannabispremature birthopiates methadonemothers who use it have 23 times greater risk for unexplained sudden death in infancycocaine linked to infant deathinfants exposed to opiates utero5594 show symptoms to newborn withdrawalirritability highpitched crying tremors vomiting diarrhea rapid breathingBrain development promotes learningsensory skills not fully developed at birth but are pretty strongtwo hour old infant prefers sweet tastes to other onessmellinfants can distinguish between their mothers breastmilk and othershearinginfants startled by loud noisesturn bodies towards the soundvisionvisual acuity is 2030 cmbad but they adaptit encourages focuson whats importantinfantsnot able to survive on their own BUT also not completely helplessbasic reflexes to survivegrasping reflex survival mechanismadaptive because offspring need to be carried placesorooting reflexturningsucking that infants do near nipplemyelination and neuronal connectionsobrain growth in 2 important aspectsspecific areas within the brain maturebecome functional
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