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PSYC 100

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PSYC 100
Daniel J Levitin

Chapter 8 thinking and intelligenceGigerenzer low probability events that are highly published have dire consequences dread risk can profoundly affect reasoningHow does the mind represent informationIntelligence some people seem to be better than others at using informationGladwell The Power of Thinking without Thinking the ability to use information rapidly is a critical human skillCognitive psychology originally based on the notions that the brain represents information and that the act of thinking cognition is directly associated with manipulating these representationsUnderstanding the nature of our everyday mental representation is difficult Analogical representations Have some of the physical characteristics of an object it is analogous to the object imagesSymbolic representations an abstract representation that doesnt correspond to physical characteristics of an object or idea wordsMental images are analogical representationsThe R studies showed that the time it takes to say whether a stimulus is a mirror image will increase as a function of how far the stimulus is rotated from its original positionAre representations of objects analogical or could they be simple representations based on factual knowledge about the worldAt least some thoughts take the form of mental imagesKosslyn visual imagery is associated with activity in visual perception related areas of the brain the same brain areas activated when we view something are active when we think in images When we retrieve information from memory the representation of that recalled picture in our minds eye parallels the strepresentation in our brain of the 1 time we saw it eye facing into the brainLimits of analogical representations if something cant be perceived wholly by our perceptual system we cant form a complete analogical representation of it mental mapsanalogicalsymbolic We often regularize irregular shapes as shortcutsConcepts are symbolic representationsHow we use knowledge about objects efficientlyCategorization grouping things based on shared properties reduces the amount of knowledge we must hold in memory and is therefore an efficient way of thinkingConcept a category or class that includes subtypes and or individual items An abstract representation that groups or categorizes objects events or relations around common themesDefining attribute model that idea that a concept is characterized by a list of features that are necessary to determine if an object is a member of a category It fails to capture many key aspects of how we organize things in our minds It implies an allornon categorization and that all the given categorys attributes are equally salient in terms of defining this category and the model posits that all the members of a category are all equal in the category Prototype model an approach to object categorization that is based on the premise that within each category some members are more representative than others A particular prototype can be chosen for different reasonsExemplar model information stored about the members of a category is used to determine category membership any concept has no single best representation instead all the examples of category members form that concept Accounts for the observation that some category members are more prototypical than others the prototypes are simply members we have encountered more oftenSchemas organize useful information about environmentsEnable us to interact with the complex reality Knowledge regarding situations and social contexts differ from the knowledge associated with object classificationOne theory is focused on schemas about the sequences of events in certain situations Shank and Abelson 1977 have referred to those schemas as scripts which operate at the unconscious level gender roleschemaWe can employ schemas because common situations have consistent attributes and people have specific roles in specific contextsScripts dictate our appropriate behaviours and what we view as appropriate is shaped by culture Their adaptive value is that they minimize the amount of
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