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PSYC180 - Kahneman Thinking Fast & Slow Notes

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PSYC 180
Amir Raz

Thinking Fast and Slow Notes Characteristics of S1 Generates impressions, feelings, and inclinations; when endorsed by S2 these becomes beliefs, attitudes, and intentions Operates automatically and quickly, with little or effort, and no sense of voluntary control Can be programmed by S2 to mobilize attention when a particular pattern is detected Executes skilled responses and generates skilled intuitions, after adequate training Creates a coherent pattern of activated ideas in associative memory Links a sense of cognitive ease to illusions of truth, pleasant feelings, and reduced vigilance Distinguishes the surprising from the normal Infers and invents causes and intentions Neglects ambiguity and suppresses doubt Is biased to believe and confirm Exaggerates emotional consistency (halo effect) Focuses on existing evidence and ignores absent evidence (WYSIATI) Generates a limited set of basic assessments Represents sets by norms and prototypes, does not integrate Matches intensities across scale Computes more than intended (mental shotgun) Sometimes substitutes an easier question for a difficult one (heuristics) Is more sensitive to change than to states (prospect theory) Overweights low probabilities Shows diminishing sensitivity to quantity Responds more strongly to losses than to gains (loss aversion) Frames decisions problems narrowly, in isolation from one another Chapter 1: The Characters of the Story System 1 operates automatically and quickly, with little or no effort, and no sense of voluntary control System 2 allocates attention to the effortful mental activities that demand it, including complex computations. The operations of System 2 are often associated with the subjective experience of agency, choice, and concentration System believes itself to be where the action is S1 effortlessly originates impressions and feelings that are main sources of the explicit beliefs and deliberate choices of S2 S1 examples (drive a car on an empty road, understand simple sentences) S2 examples require attention and are disrupted when attention is drawn away (park in a narrow space, tell someone your phone number) Cognitive illusions illusions of thought In order to avoid illusions, we must learn to recognize situations in which mistakes are likely and try harder to avoid significant mistakes when the stakes are high Chapter 2: Attention and Effort S2 is lazy Pupil dilation is a good measure of the physical arousal that accompanies mental effort Law of least effort if there are several ways of achieving the same goal, people will eventually gravitate to the least demanding course of action S2 is the only one that can follow rules, compare objects on several attributes, and make deliberate choices between options S1 detects simple relations S2 can adopt task sets program memory to obey an instruction that overrides habitual responses Chapter 3: The Lazy Controller Flow state of effortless attending Separates the two forms of effort: concentration on the task, and the deliberate control of attention People who are cognitively busy are more likely to make selfish choices, use sexist language, and make superficial judgments in social situations Self-control requires attention and effort Ego depletion if you have had to force yourself to do something, you are less willing or less able to exert self-control when the next challenge comes around Chapter 4: The Associative Machine Associatively coherent self-reinforcing pattern of cognitive, emotional, and physical responses that is both diverse and integrated Principles of association: resemblance, contiguity in time and place, causality Priming effect exposure to a word causes immediate and measurable changes in the easy with which many related words can be evoked Ideomotor effect influencing of an action by the idea (Florida effect) Lady Macbeth effect feeling that ones soul is stained appears to trigger a desire to cleanse ones body Chapter 5: Cognitive Ease The measure of how much attention or effort is required Cognitive strain affected by both the current level of effort and the presence of unmet demands Predictable illusions inevitably occur if a judgment is based on an impression of cognitive ease or strain Chapter 6: Norms, Surprises, and Causes Main function of S1 is to maintain and update a model of your personal world Two varieties of surprise: active/conscious, and passive Norm theory: events appear normal than they would have otherwise, but not necessarily because they confirm advance expectations. They appear normal because they recruit the original episode, retrieve it from memory, and are interpreted in conjunction with it Norms provide the background for a vast number of categories, and the detection of anomalies impressions of causality (products of S1) Chapter 7: A Machine for Jumping to Conclusions positive test strategy deliberate search for confirming evidence confirmation bias people seek data that are likely to be compatible with the beliefs they already hold halo effect the tendency to like (or dislike) everything about a person, including things you have not observed tame the halo effect by decorrelating errors associative machine represents only activated ideas WYSIATI facilitates the achievement of coherence and of the cognitive ease that causes us to accept a statement as true Explains biases of judgments and choices Overconfidence: neither the quality nor quantity of the evidence counts for much in subjective confidence. Our associative system tends to settle on a coherent pattern of activation and suppresses doubt and ambiguity Framing effects: different way of presenting the same information often evoke different emotions Base-rate neglect Chapter 8: How Judgments Happen Basic assessment: various aspects of the situation without specific intention and with little or no effort play an important role in intuitive judgment S1 ability to translate values across dimensions and mental shotgun Judgment heuristic Mental shotgun we often compute much more than we want or need Chapter 9: Answering an Easier Question Substitution: the operation of answering one question in place of another The target question is the assessment you intend to produce The heuristic question is the simpler question that you answer instead Heuristic a simple procedure that helps find adequate answers to difficult questions Affect heuristic people let their likes and dislikes determine their beliefs about the world Chapter 10: The Law of Small Numbers Law of small numbers: the law of large numbers applies to small numbers as well Law of large numbers: results of large samples deserve more trust than smaller samples The exaggerated faith in small samples is only one example of a more general illusion we pay more attention to the content of messages than to information about their reliability, and as a result end up with a worldview that is simple and more coherent than the data justify. Jumping to conclusions is a safer sport in the world of our imagination than it is in reality Statistics produce many observations that appear to beg for causal explanations but do not lend
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