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Chapter 7

PSYC 211 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Noxious Stimulus, Frontal Lobe, Mechanoreceptor

Course Code
PSYC 211
Yogita Chudasama

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PSYC211 Chapter 7 Notes
Pitch: A perceptual dimension of sound; corresponds to the fundamental frequency
Hertz (Hz): Cycles per second
Loudness: A perceptual dimension of sound; corresponds to intensity
Timbre: A perceptual dimension of sound; corresponds to complexity
Tympanic Membrane: The eardrum
Ossicle: One of the three bones of the middle ear
Malleus: The “hammer”; the first of the three ossicles
Incus: The “anvil”; the second of the three ossicles
Stapes: The “stirrup”; the last of the three ossicles
Cochlea: The snail-shaped structure of the inner ear that contains the auditory transducing
Oval Window: An opening in the bone surrounding the cochlea that reveals a membrane, against
which the baseplate of the stapes presses, transmitting sound vibrations into the fluid within the
Organ of Corti: The sensory organ on the basilar membrane that contains the auditory hair cells
Hair Cell: The receptive cell of the auditory apparatus
Deiters Cell: A supporting cell found in the organ of Corti; contains the organ of Corti
Basiliar Membrane: A membrane in the cochlea of the inner ear; contains the organ of Corti
Tectorial Membrane: A membrane located above the basilar membrane; serves as a shelf against
which the cilia of the auditory hair cells move
Round Window: An opening in the bone surrounding the cochlea of the inner ear that permits
vibrations to be transmitted, via the oval window, into the fluid in the cochlea
Cilium: A hairlike appendages of a cell involved in movement or in transfusing sensory information;
found on the receptors in the auditory and vestibular system
Tip Link: An elastic filament that attaches the tip of one cilium to the side of the adjacent cilium
Insertional Plaque: The point of attachment of a tip link to a cilium
Cochlear Nerve: the branch of the auditory nerve that transmits auditory information from the cochlea
to the brain
Olivocochlear Bundle: A bundle of efferent axons that travel from the olivary complex of the medulla
to the auditory hair cells on the cochlea
Cochlear Nucleus: One of a group of nuclei in the medulla that receives auditory information from the
Superior Olivary Complex: A group of nuclei in the medulla; involved with auditory functions,
including localization of the source of sounds
Lateral Lemniscus: A band of fibers running rostrally through the medulla dn. Pons; carries fibers of
the auditory system
Tonotopic Representation: A topographically organized mapping of different frequencies of sound
that are represented in a particular region of the brain
Core Region: The primary auditory cortex, located on a gyrus on the dorsal surface of the temporal
Belt Region: The first level of auditory association cortex; surrounds the primary auditory cortex

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Parabelt Region: The second level of auditory association cortex; surrounds the belt region
Place Code: The system by which information about different frequencies is coded by different
locations on the basilar membrane
Cochlear Implant: An electronic device surgically implanted in the inner ear that can enable a deaf
person to hear
Rate Coding: The system by which information about different frequencies is coded by the rate of
firing of neurons in the auditory system

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Fundamental Frequency: The lowest, and usually most intense, frequency of a complex sound; most
often perceived as the sound’s basic pitch
Overtone: The frequency of complex tones that occurs at multiples of the fundamental frequency
Amusia: Loss or impairment of musical abilities, produced by hereditary factors or brain damage
Cutaneous Sense: One of the somatosenses; includes sensitivity to stimuli that involve the skin
Proprioception: Perception of the body’s position and posture
Kinesthesia: Perception of the body’s won movements
Organic Sense: A sense modality that arises from receptors located within the inner organs of the
Glabrous Skin: Skin that does not contain hair; found on the palms and the soles of the feet
Ruffini Corpuscle: A vibration-sensitive organ located in hairy skin
Pacinian Corpuscle: A specialized, encapsulated somatosensory nerve ending that detects
mechanical stimuli, especially vibration
Messiness’ Corpuscle: The touch-sensitive end organs located in the papillae, small elevations of the
dermis that project up into the epidermis
Merkel’s Disk: The touch-sensitive end organs found at the base of the epidermis adjacent to sweat
Phantom Limb: Sensations that appear to originate in a limb that has been amputated
Nucleus Raphe Magnus: A nucleus of the raphe that contains serotonin-secreting neurons that
project to the dorsal gray matter of the spinal cord and is involved in analgesia produced by opiates
The Stimulus:
Sounds are produced by objects that vibrate and set molecules of air into motion; the movements of
molecules cause air surrounding it alternately to condense and rarefy (pull apart), producing waves
that travel away from the object at approximately 700 miles per hour
Waves with vibration ranges between 30 - 20,000 times per second will stimulate as a sound in
human ear
Pitch is determined by frequency of vibration, measured in Hz or cycles per second
Loudness is a function of intensity - the degree to which the condensations and rarefactions of air
differ from each other. More vigorous vibrations = more intense sound waves
Timbre provides information about the nature of the particular sound. The mixture of frequencies
determine the timbre you hear
An ear is an analytical organ (“to undo”). When two different frequencies are mixed, we do not
perceive an intermediate tone; instead, we hear both original tones
Anatomy of the Ear:
Sound is funneled via the pinna (external ear) through the ear canal to the tympanic membrane
(eardrum), which vibrates with the sound
Middle ear consists of 2mL in volume and contains 3 ossicles (bones): malleus (hammer), incus
(anvil) and stapes (stirrup) in that order to the cochlea which contains the receptors
The baseplate of the stapes presses against the membrane behind the oval window, the opening in
the bony process surrounding the cochlea
Cochlea is filled with fluid and is part of the inner ear
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