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PSYC 211 (154)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 211
Professor
Yogita Chudasama
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC211 Chapter 3 Notes Definitions: Neuraxis: An imaginary line drawn through the center of the length of the CNS, from the bottom of the spinal cord to the front of the forebrain Anterior: With respect to the CNS, located near or toward the head Posterior: With respect to the CNS, located near or toward the tail Rostral: “Toward the beak”; with respect to the CNS, in a direction along the neuraxis toward the front of the face Caudal: “Toward the tail”; with respect to the CNS, in a direction along the neuraxis away from the front of the face Dorsal: “Toward the back”; with respect to the CNS, in a direction perpendicular to the neuraxis toward the top of the head or the back Ventral: “Toward the belly”; with respect to the CNS, in a direction perpendicular to the neuraxis toward the bottom of the skull or the front surface of the body Lateral: Toward the side of the body, away from the middle Medial: Toward the middle of the body, away from the side Ipsilateral: Located on the same side of the body Contralateral: Located on the opposite side of the body Cross Section: With respect to the CNS, a slice taken at right angles to the neuraxis Frontal Section: A slice through the brain parallel to the forehead Horizontal Section: A slice through the brain parallel to the ground Sagittal Section: A slice through the brain parallel to the neuraxis and perpendicular to the ground Midsagittal Plane: The plane through the neuraxis perpendicular to the ground; divides the brain into two symmetrical halves Meninges: The three layers of tissue that encase the CNS: the dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater Dura Mater: The outermost of the meninges; tough and flexible Arachnoid Membrane: The middle layer of the meninges, located between the outer dura mater and inner pia mater Pia Mater: The layer of the meninges that clings to the surface of the brain; thin and delicate Subarachnoid Space: The fluid-filled space that cushions the brain; located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): A clear fluid, similar to blood plasma, that fills the ventricular system of the brain and the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord Ventricle: One of the hollow spaces within the brain, filled with CSF Lateral Ventricle: One of the two ventricles located in the center of the telencephalon Third Ventricle: The ventricle located in the center of the diencephalon Cerebral Aqueduct: A narrow tube interconnecting the third and fourth ventricles of the brain, located in the center of the mesencephalon Fourth Ventricle: The ventricle located between the cerebellum and the dorsal pons, in the center of the metencephalon Choroid Plexus: The highly vascular tissue that protrudes into the ventricles and produces CSF Arachnoid Granulation: Small projections of the arachnoid membrane through the dura mater into the superior sagittal sinus; CSF flows through them to be reabsorbed into the blood supply Superior Sagittal Sinus: A venous sinus located in the midline just dorsal to the corpus callosum, between the two cerebral hemispheres Obstructive Hydrocephalus: A condition in which all or some of the brain’s ventricles are enlarged; caused by an obstruction that impeded the normal flow of CSF Neural Tube: A hollow tube, closed at the rostral end, that forms from ectodermal tissue early in embryonic development; serves as the origin of the CNS Cerebral Cortex: The outermost layer of gray matter of the cerebral hemispheres Ventricular Zone: A layer of cells that line the inside of the neural tube; contains progenitor cells that divide and give rise to cells of the CNS Progenitor Cells: Cells of the ventricular zone that divide and give rise to cells of the CNS Symmetrical Division: Division of a progenitor cell that gives rise to two identical progenitor cells; increases the size of the ventricular zone and hence the brain that develops from it Asymmetrical Division: Division of a progenitor cell that gives rise to another progenitor cell and a neuron, which migrates away from the ventricular zone toward its final resting place in the brain Radial Glia: Special glia with fibers that grow radially outward from the ventricular zone to the surface of the cortex; provide guidance for neurons migrating outward during brain development Cajal-Retzius (C-R) Cells: Specialized neurons that establish themselves during cortical development in a layer near the terminals of the radial glia, just inside the pia mater; secrete a chemical that controls the establishment of migrating neurons in the layers of the cortex Apoptosis: Death of a cell caused by a chemical signal that activates a genetic mechanism inside the cell Forebrain: The most rostral of the three major divisions of the brain; includes the telencephalon and diencephalon Cerebral Hemisphere: One of the two major portions of the forebrain, covered by the cerebral cortex Subcortical Region: The region located within the brain, beneath the cortical surface Sulcus: A groove in the surface of the cerebral hemisphere, small than a fissure Fissure: A major groove int he surface of the brain, larger than a sulcus Gyrus: A convolution of the cortex of the cerebral hemispheres, separated by sulci or fissures Primary Visual Cortex: The region of the posterior occipital lobe whose primary input is from the visual system Calcarine Fissure: A fissure located int he occipital lobe on the medial surface of the brian; most of the primary visual cortex is located along its upper and lower banks Primary Auditory Cortex: The region of the superior temporal lobe whose primary input is from the auditory system Lateral Fissure: The fissure that separates the temporal lobe from the overlying frontal and parietal lobes Primary Somatosensory Cortex: The region of the anterior parietal lobe whose primary input is from the somatosensory system Central Sulcus: The sulcus that separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe Insular Cortex: A sunken region of the cerebral cortex that is normally covered by the rostral superior temporal lobe and caudal inferior frontal lobe Primary Motor Cortex: The region of the posterior frontal lobe that contains neurons that control movements of skeletal muscles Frontal Lobe: The anterior portion of the cerebral cortex, rostral to the parietal lobe and dorsal to the temporal lobe Parietal Lobe: The region of the cerebral cortex causal to the frontal lobe and dorsal to the temporal lobe Temporal LobeT :he region of the cerebral cortex rostral tot he occipital lobe and ventral to the parietal and frontal lobes Occipital Lobe: The region of the cerebral cortex caudal to the parietal and temporal lobes Sensory Association Cortex: Those regions of the cerebral cortex that receive information from the regions of primary sensory cortex Motor Association Cortex: The region of the frontal lobe rostral to the primary motor cortex; also known as the premotor cortex Prefrontal Cortex: The region of the frontal lobe rostral tot he motor association cortex Corpus Callosum: A large bundle of axons that interconnects corresponding regions of the association cortex on each side of the brain Neocortex: The phylogenetically newest cortex, including the primary sensory cortex, primary motor cortex, and association cortex Limbic Cortex: Phylogenetically old cortex, located at the medial edge (“limbus”) of the cerebral hemispheres; part of the limbic system Cingulate Gyrus: A strip of limbic cortex lying along the lateral walls of the groove separating the cerebral hemispheres, just above the corpus callosum Limbic System: A group of brain regions including the anterior thalamic nuclei, amygdala, hippocampus, limbic cortex, and parts of the hypothalamus, as well as their interconnecting fiber bundles Hippocampus: A forebrain structure of the temporal lobe, constituting an important part of the limbic system; includes the hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus, and subiculum Amygdala: A structure in the interior of the rostral temporal lobe, containing a set of nuclei; part of the limbic system Fornix: A fiber bundle that connects the hippocampus with other parts of the brain, including the mammillary bodies of the hypothalamus; part of the limbic system Mammillary Bodies: A protrusion of the bottom of the brain at the posterior end of the hypothalamus, containing some hypothalamic nuclei; part of the limbic system Basal Ganglia: A group of subcortical nuclei in the telencephalon, the caudate nucleus, the globus pallidus, and the putamen; important parts of the motor system Nucleus: An identifiable group of neural cell bodies in the CNS Diencephalon: A region of the forebrain surrounding the third ventricle; includes the thalamus and the hypothalamus Thalamus: The largest portion of the diencephalon, located above the hypothalamus; contains nuclei that project information to specific regions of the cerebral cortex and receive information from it Projection Fiber: An axon of a neuron in one region of the brian whose terminals form synapses with neurons in another region Lateral Geniculate Nucleus: A group of cell bodies within the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus that receives fibers from the retina and projects fibers to the primary visual cortex Medial geniculate Nucleus: A group of cell bodies within the medial geniculate body of the thalamus; receives fibers from the auditory system and projects fibers to the primary auditory cortex Ventrolateral Nucleus: A nucleus of the thalamus that receives inputs from the cerebellum and sends axons to the primary motor cortex Hypothalamus: The group of nuclei of the diencephalon situated beneath the thalamus; involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system, control of the anterior and posterior pituitary glands, and integration of species-typical behaviour Optic Chiasm: An X-shaped connection between the optic nerves, located below the base of the brain, just anterior to the pituitary gland Anterior Pituitary Gland: The anterior part of the pituitary gland; and endocrine gland whose secretions are controlled by the hypothalamic hormones Neurosecretory Cell: A neuron that secretes a hormone or hormone-like substance Posterior Pituitary Gland: The posterior part of the pituitary gland; an endocrine gland that contains hormone-secreting terminal buttons of axons whose cell bodies lie within the hypothalamus Midbrain: The mesencephalon; the central of the three major divisions of the brain Mesencephalon: The midbrain; a region of the brain that surrounds the cerebral aqueduct; includes the tectum and the tegmentum Tectum: The dorsal part of the midbrain; includes the superior and inferior colliculi Superior Colliculi: Protrusions on top of the midbrain; part of the visual system Inferior Colliculi: Protrusions on top of the midbrain; part of the auditory system Brain Stem: The “stem” of the brain, from the medulla to the midbrain, excluding the cerebellum Tegmentum: The ventral part of the midbrain; includes the periaqueductal gray matter, reticular formation, red nucleus, and substantia nigra Reticular Formation: A large network of neural tissue located in the central region of the brain stem, from the medulla to the diencephalon Periaqueductal Gray Matter: The region of the midbrain surrounding the cerebral aqueduct; contains neural circuits involved in species-typical behaviours Red Nucleus: A large nucleus of the midbrain that receives inputs from the cerebellum and motor cortex and sends axons to motor neurons in the spinal cord Substantia Nigra: A darkly stained region of the tegmentum that contains neurons that communicate with the caudate nucleus and putamen in the basal ganglia Hindbrain: The most caudal of the three major divisions of the brain; includes the metencephalon and myelencephalon Cerebellum: A major part of the brain located dorsal to the pons, containing the two cerebellar hemispheres, covered with the cerebellar cortex; an important component of the motor system Cerebellar Cortex: The cortex that covers the surface of the cerebellum Deep Cerebellar Nuclei: Nuclei located within the cerebellar hemispheres; receive projections from the cerebellar cortex and send projections out of the cerebellum to other parts of the brain Cerebellar Peduncle: One of the three bundles of axons that attach each cerebellar hemisphere to the dorsal pons Pons: The region of the metencephalon rostral to the medulla, caudal to the midbrain, and ventral to the cerebellum Medulla Oblongata: The most caudal portion of the brain, located in the myelencephalon, immediately rostral to the spinal cord Basic Features of the Nervous System: • 3 Standard ways to slice the nervous system: • Transversely. Gives cross-sections/frontal sections. • Parallel to the ground. Gives horizontal sections. • Perpendicular to the ground and parallel to the neuraxis. Gives sagittal or midsagittal sections. An Overview: • Brain: A large mass of neurons, glia, and other supporting cells. • • Encased by bony skull. • Floating in cerebrospinal fluid. • Continuously receives 20% of blood flow from heart, because it cannot store its fuel (primarily glucose), nor can it temporarily extract energy without oxygen (like muscles can). • 1 second interruption = uses up most dissolved oxygen • 6 second interruption = unconsciousness • ~minutes = permanent brain damage • Chemically guarded by the blood-brain barrier. Meninges: • Contains dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater • Arachnoid membrane has weblike arachnoid trabeculae that protrude from it and consists of soft and spongy tissue • Pia mater is closely attached to the brain and spinal cord; follows every surface convolution. The small surface blood vessels of the brain/spinal cord are contained within this layer • Subarachnoid space is filled with Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): A clear fluid, similar to blood plasma, that fills the ventricular system of the brain and the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord • CNS (brain/spinal cord) is covered only with 3 layer of meninges (dura, arachnoid, pia). • PNS (nerves/peripheral ganglia) is covered with 2 layers of meninges; the outer and inner layers (dura and pia) fuse and form a sheath that covers the spinal and cranial nerves and the peripheral ganglia. The Ventricular System and Production of CSF: • Brain weighs ~1400g (~3.08lb), but because it is suspended in CSF its net weight is ~80g (0.18lb). This reduces the pressure on the base of the brain. • CSF also reduce the shock to the CNS that would be caused by sudden head movement. • The third ventricle is connected to the fourth ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct. The walls of the third ventricle divide the surround part of the brain into symmetrical halves • The massa intermedia (a bridge of neural tissue) crosses through the middle of this ventricle and serves as a convenient reference point CSF is produced continuously in lateral, third, fourth ventricles; total volume is ~135ml; half life is • ~3 hours. • Mechanisms for production, circulation, and reabsorption: • CSF produced by choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles. • Flows into third ventricle. More CSF produced here. • Flows through cerebral aqueduct to fourth ventricle. More CSF produced here. • Leaves fourth ventricle through small openings that connect with the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain. • Then flows through subarachnoid space around the CNS, where it is reabsorbed into the blood supply through arachnoid granulations (which protrude into the superior sagittal sinus, and drain into the veins serving the brain). • Obstructions can be caused by tumours growing in midbrain, pushing against cerebral aqueduct, blocking its flow; infants born with a cerebral aqueduct that is too small to accommodate a normal CSF flow. • Obstructions can be fixed by inserting shunt tubes into one of the ventricles in the brain, which is connected to a pressure relief valve (by a tube under the skin) implanted in the abdominal cavity, to let CSF release into the abdomen to be absorbed into blood supply. The Central Nervous System: Major Division Ventricle Subdivision Principle Structures Laateral Telencephaaonn Cerebral Cortex Basal Ganglia
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