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PSYC 211 (154)
Chapter 18

Chapter 18 Notes.docx

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Course Code
PSYC 211
Yogita Chudasama

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Chapter 18: Drug Abuse Notes taken by: Ashley Brown Contact for mistakes: [email protected] Common Features of Addiction Even though drugs cause bad things, people continue to use them because they stimulate brain mechanisms responsible for positive reinforcement. Their immediate effects are more powerful than the realization that in the long term, bad things will happen. Alcohol  car accidents, fetal alcohol syndrome, Korsakoff’s 
 syndrome, heart disease, intracerebral hemorrhage Smoking  Lung cancer, heart attack, stroke, less healthy babies, babies with smaller brains. Cocaine
  psychotic behaviour, brain damage, death by overdose, competition for lucrative and illegal markets, causes violent deaths. A Little Background Found substances in nature that had medicinal qualities. Also discovered recreational ones that produced pleasurable effects when consumed Addictive drugs and their site of action: - ethyl alcohol  NMDA receptor (indirect antagonist), GABA receptAr (indirect agonist) - Barbiturates  GABA receptor (indirect agonist) A - Benzodiazepines (tranquilizers)  GABA recepAor (indirect agonist) - Cannabis (marijuana)  CB can1abinoid receptor (agonist) - Nicotine  Nicotinic ACh receptor (agonist) - Opiates (heroin, morphine, etc.)  μ and δ opiate receptor agonist - Phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine  NMDA receptor (indirect antagonist) - Cocaine  blocks reuptake of dopamine (and serotonin and norepinephrine) - Amphetamine  causes release of dopamine (by running dopamine transporters in reverse) Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement refers to the effec
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