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Chapter 16

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McGill University
PSYC 211
Yogita Chudasama

Psyc 211Chapter 16Schizophrenia and the Affective DisordersLarrys casehadsevereschizophreniarequiredconstant supervisionmedication helped buthestillexhibitedseverepsychotic symptomshe was always a shy and awkward child who prefered to be isolated even from his parents and sisterhis grades got from average to worse and he dropped out of school at 17he began to exhibit psychotic and weird behaviour and started hearing voicesone day he hurt his mother badly by hitting her his parents put him in custody and his diagnosis was schizophrenia paranoid typeThorazine was given to him and his condition got better but he still had some relapses when he was not taking the medicationthe medication was having side effects and as he was taken out of it his symptoms got even worse so the doctor prescribed another drugthis chapter summarizes research on the nature and physiology characterized by maladaptive behaviour mental disordersthe symptoms of mental disorders include odeficient or inappropriate socialbehaviorsoillogicalincoherentorobsessionalthoughtsoinappropriateemotionalresponses including depression mania or anxiety and odelusions andhallucinationsThis chapter discusses two serious mental disorders schizophrenia and the major affective disordersSchizophreniaDescriptionaffects 1 of the worlds populationIts monetarycosttosocietyisenormousintheUnited States this figure exceeds that of the cost of all cancersDescriptionsof symptoms in ancient writingsindicatethat the disorder has been around for thousands of yearsThemajorsymptomsof schizophreniaareuniversal and clinicians have developed criteria for reliably diagnosing the disorder inpeopleof a wide variety of culturesschizophrenia means splitmind but it does not imply multiple personalitya break with reality caused by disorganization of the various functions of the mind such that thoughts and feelings no longer worked together normally Eugen BleulerSchizophrenia is characterized by three categories of symptoms positive negative and cognitivePositivesymptomsmakethemselves knownbytheirpresence includingthought disorders hallucinations and delusions oappeartoinvolveexcessive activity in some neural circuits that include dopamine as a neurotransmitter1Thought disorder disorganizedirrationalthinking isprobablythemost importantsymptomofschizophreniaSchizophrenics havegreatdifficultyarrangingtheirthoughtslogically and sorting out plausible conclusions from absurd ones In conversation they jump from one topic to another as new associations come up Sometimes they utter meaningless words or choose words for rhyme rather than for meaning2Delusionsarebeliefsthatareobviouslycontrary to fact reality eg believing that others are conspiring against them delusions of grandeur delusions of control being controlled by others3Hallucinations perceptions of stimulithat are not actually presentmost commonschizophrenichallucinations are auditory but they can also involve any of the othersensestypicalschizophrenichallucination consists of voices talking to the personin olfactory hallucinations often contribute to the delusion that others are trying to kill the person with poison gasNegative symptoms are known by the absence or diminutionofnormalbehaviorseg flattenedemotional response poverty of speech lack of initiative and persistence1anhedonia inability to experience pleasureCognitive symptoms are closely related to the negative symptoms and may be produced by abnormalities in the same brain regions1difficulty in sustaining attention 2lowpsychomotor speedthe ability to rapidly and fluently perform movements of the fingers hands and legs 3deficits in learning and memory 4poor abstract thinking 5poor problem solvingNegative symptoms and cognitive symptoms arenot specificto schizophreniathey are seen in many neurological disordersthat involvebrain damage especially to the frontal lobes appeartobecausedbydevelopmentalor degenerative processes that impair the normal functions of some regions of the brainsymptoms of schizophrenia appear gradually and insidiously over a period of 3 to 5 years1Negative symptoms emerge 1st2followed by cognitive symptoms3positive symptoms follow years later
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