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Psychology (1,418)
PSYC 211 (154)
Chapter 13

PSYC 211 Chapter 13

24 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 211
Yogita Chudasama

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Psyc 211Chapter 13LEARNING AND MEMORYI INTRODUCTION OF CHAPTERAnterograde amnesia Patient HM After his operation he cannot recall things that happened in a near past He is aware of his condition The present is clear to him but he cannot remember what just happenedLearning experiences change our nervous system and thus our behavior These changes are called memoriesThere are 4 types of learningPerceptual Learning ability to learn to recognize stimuli that have been perceived before ability to identify and categorize objectsStimulus response Learning ability to learn to perform a particular behavior when a particular stimulus is present involves 2 types of learning Classical Conditioning an unimportant stimulus acquires the properties of an important oneEg A rabbit blinks unconditional responsemotor system when a puff of air unconditional stimulussomatosensory system is thrown at its face However when the puff of air is preceded by 1000Hz tones in several trials then the eyeblink conditional response will occur whenever the tone is played conditional stimulusauditory systemThe synapse connecting the tone sensitive neuron with the neuron in the motor system is weak however the synapse connecting the somatosensory neuron with the motor system is strongHebb rule if a synapse repeatedly becomes active at about the same time that the postsynaptic neuron fires changes will take place in the structure or chemistry of the synapse that will strengthen itInstrumental Conditioning Operant Conditioning simply put when a behavior is followed by favorable consequences reinforcers it will occur more frequently and when a behavior is followed by unfavorable consequences punishers it will occur less oftenReinforcement Eg A rat that presses the lever mounted on the wall and gets food will be more likely to press the lever again because there is a positive reinforcement The sight of the lever is needed to produce this responseMotor learning learning to make a new response Ie in the example of the rat the animal must learn to recognize the stimulus perceptual learning make the response motor learning and a connection must be established between these two new memories stimulusresponse learningRelational learning involves learning the relationships among individual stimuli Eg If you hear a cat meowing in the dark you can imagine how he looks like and how it would be to touch its fur So you can make a relation between the auditory system and the visual or somatosensory system
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