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Chapter 16

PSYC 211 Chapter Notes - Chapter 16: Vagus Nerve, Neurotrophic Factors, Clozapine


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 211
Professor
Yogita Chudasama
Chapter
16

Page:
of 26
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Schizophrenia is NOT a split personality disorder
!Schizophrenia means ‘split mind’ but does NOT imply a split or
multiple personality.
!The term ‘schizophrenia,’ coined by Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939),
was intended to describe a separation of function between
personality, cognition and perception.
!One percent of the worlds population is affected by
schizophrenia.
!Typically begins in adolescence or early adulthood.
!Comorbid with depression, anxiety and substance abuse.
!Social problems include long-term unemployment, poverty and
homelessness.
!Reduced life expectancy and high suicide rate.
Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia (I)
!Positive symptoms are characterised by their ‘presence.’
They include:
1.Thought disorders - disorganised, irrational thinking:
-Loose associations e.g. "The next day when I'd be going
out you know, I took control, like uh, I put bleach on my hair
in California.”"
- Incoherence e.g. the question "Why do people believe in
God?" elicits a response like "Because he makes a twirl in
life, my box is broken help me blue elephant. Isn't lettuce
brave? I like electrons. Hello, beautiful.""
- Neologisms e.g. "I got so angry I picked up a dish and threw
it at the geshinker."
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Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia (II)
2. Delusions - a false belief that is held with absolute
conviction, is incorrigible and patently untrue.
-Persecutions - others are plotting or conspiring against
him/her (e.g., “My mother is trying to kill me.”)
-Grandeur - one’s power and importance e.g., “I am god.”
-Control - thoughts controlled by external means (e.g.,
thoughts are controlled by tiny radio receivers implanted in
his/her brain).
-Delusional jealousy; erotomania; somatic.
Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia (III)
3.Hallucinations - a false sensory perception in the absence of
sensory stimulation.
-Auditory - hearing voices when no-one has spoken. Often
these voices tell the person to perform some act, or they can
be quite derogatory.
-Visual - seeing patterns, lights or objects that aren’t there.
-Olfactory, gustatory and tactile hallucinations exist but these
types are not common for schizophrenia although they might
be related to a particular delusion (e.g. olfactory
hallucinations contribute to delusions that others are trying to
kill him/her with poison gas).
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Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
!Negative symptoms are characterised by the ‘absence’ of
behaviours that are normally present. They include:
-Flattened affect
-Alogia
-Avolition
-Anhedonia
-Social withdrawal
-Cognitive symptoms
Failure to sustain attention
low psychomotor speed
deficits in learning and memory
poor abstract thinking
poor problem solving
People can have an unexpressed
‘schizophrenia gene’
!Some people are ‘susceptible’ to schizophrenia but do not
express it.
!The incidence of schizophrenia is as great in the offspring of
a nonschizophrenic member of a discordant monozygotic
twin pair as in the schizophrenia member.
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