Textbook Notes (368,843)
Canada (162,200)
Psychology (1,418)
PSYC 213 (154)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes.doc

6 Pages
64 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 213
Professor
Jelena Ristic
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC213 Chapter 1 Note Definitions: Folk Psychology: A set of assumptions and theories based on everyday behaviours of ourselves and others Information Theory: The information provided by a particular event is inversely related to its probability of occurrence Bit: Short for ‘binary digit’ - an event that occurs in a situation with two equally likely outcomes provided one ‘bit’ of information Filter Model: Based on the idea that information-processing is restricted by channel capacity Channel Capacity: The maximum amount of information that can be transmitted by an information-pro- cessing device Introspection: The act of observing one’s own thoughts and feelings as they seem to oneself Primary Memory: Consists of what we are aware of in the ‘immediately present moment’; often termed ‘immediate memory’ of ‘short-term memory’ Secondary Memory: The knowledge of a former state of mind after it has been absent from awareness for some period of time; also called ‘long-term memory’ Brown-Peterson Task: An experimental paradigm in which subjects are given a set of items and then a number. Subjects immediately begin counting backward by threes from the number. After a specific inter- val, subjects are asked to recall the original items Ecological Approach: A form of psychological inquiry that reflects conditions in the real world Affordances: The potential functions or uses of stimuli in the real world Information Pickup: The process whereby we perceive information directly Schema: Our expectations concerning what we are likely to find as we explore the world Perceptual Cycle: The process whereby our schema not only guides exploration of the world, but also is shaped by what it finds there Cognitive Ethology: A new research approach that links real-world observations with lab-based investi- gations Metacognition: The knowledge people have about the way certain cognitive processes work; how accu- rately you can assess you own cognitive processes What is Cognition: • No definite definition of cognition; instead, examine the ways ‘cognition’ has been used in everyday life • We try to refine folk psychology concepts we find expressed in ordinary language • Oxford English Dictionary lists the definition of cognition as ‘the action or faculty of knowing’ • Cognition is the ‘action’ of knowing: study of processes to become acquainted with things • Cognition can be seen as a faculty; divide the mind into faculties that represent the different mental activities of which we are capable • Other concepts associated with cognition include awareness, comprehension, intelligence, intuition, personal acquaintance, recognition, skill, and understanding • G.A. Miller observed that a good way of increasing a person’s vocabulary with respect to a particu- lar subject is to provide information about the relations between the words that are characteristic of that area • Awareness: Do we have to attend consciously to information in order to acquire it? Can unattended to information influence subsequent cognitive processes? • Intelligence: Is intelligence best measured by how quickly someone can process information, or is there more to it than that? • Intuition: The sudden knowing of insight to yield answers effortlessly • Personal acquaintance: Many of our cognitive processes have a very personal side to them. How are they related? Recognition: Fundamental cognitive process that means ‘to know again’ • • Skill: To apply a reasoned approach to solving a problem. Skill can manifest itself in a variety of ways • Understanding: Basic concept of cognition and has many facets. The ability to make good deci- sions, reasonable judgements, and to comprehend what is going on around us Cognitive Psychology and Information-Processing Theory: • To many people, everyday activities such as attending, comprehending, remembering, and prob- lem-solving fall under the general heading of ‘thinking’ • Information-processing is the subject matter of cognitive psychology Information-processing came into psychology from telephone radio engineering through three bro- • ken down processes • A sender: encodes the message with what s/he wants to communicate • Communication channel: transmitted via a communication channel (i.e. Air, wire, or printed page) • Receiver: decodes the message and translates it Information Theory: • Information reduces uncertainty in the mind of the receiver • The amount of information provided by a message is proportional to the probability of that message occurring • Idea underlying information-processing theory is that the information provided by a particular mes- sage is not determined solely by the signal itself, but rather by the whole array of possible mes- sages of which this particular signal is just one • The amount of information a message conveys is an increasing function of the number of possible messages from which that particular message could have been selected; • Information theory posits that the information provided by a particular message is inversely related to its probability of occurrence; the less likely a signal is, the more information it conveys • Amount of information can be quantified by bits which stands for ‘binary digit’ Early Tests of Information Theory: • Merkel demonstrated that people appear to respond more slowly to less likely signals • Hick suggested that stimulus ‘information is intimately concerned with response time’ • When the set of possible stimuli is small, there is little uncertainty as to which signal will occur; thus information produced by stimulus is small • When ensemble of possible signals grow in size, uncertainty increases as to which signal will occur; the amount of information produced by a stimulus increases • Response time increases with the number of possible stimulus alternatives because response time is ‘intimately concerned’ with the information conveyed by a particular stimulus; the more information a signal contributes, the more time it takes a subject to produce the appropriate re- sponse • The various studies all showed the time it takes a person to react to any one stimulus is not deter- mined solely by that stimulus itself, but rather by the entire complex of situations of which this par- ticular signal is just one • Regardless of how the signal information is produced, people take longer to react to an improbable stimulus (which conveys more information) than a probable stimulus (which conveys less informa- tion) • To recap: response time is proportional to signal information whether the information is varied by • Altering the number of equally probable alternatives • Manipulating the frequency of stimulus occurrence • Introducing sequential dependencies into the presentation schedule of stimuli Information-Processing Limitations: • The time it takes for information to flow through the nervous system
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 213

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit