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Chapter 2

Cognition chapter 2.pdf

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McGill University
PSYC 213
Jelena Ristic

CognitionChapter 2Lecture 3 Cognitive NeuroscienceThe goal of cognitive neuroscience is to discover the brain mechanisms that give rise to human mental functions such as languageattention and memoryMind consists of specific modulesModulesThe section of the braineach which is responsible for particular cognitive operationThe brain as the organ of the mindFranz Joseph GallHe created the term phrenology to study the shapesize and protrusions of the cranium in an attempt to discover the relation of parts of the brain to various mental activities and abilitiesThis argue reduces to three basic principlesThe brain is the sole organ of the mindBasic character and intellectual traits are innately determinedSince there are differences in character and intellectual traits among individuals as well as differences in various intellectual capacities within a single individualthere must exist differentially developed areas in the brain responsible for these differences Not everyone has taken a strong localization of function positionIt simply means that there is a strict one to one correspondence between specific cognitive functions and specific parts of the brainAblation A method whereby parts of the cortex of an animal are destroyed the results observedConclusion of ablation studyMental process are not due to the independent activities of individual parts of the brain but to the activities of the brain as a whole and that it would appear best and most scientific that we should not adhere to any of the phrenological systemStudy of the effects of ablation of the frontal roots in rats1890 The technique works by making small holes in the animals skull rather than opening up the skulland determine by later histology precisely where the lesions had occurredthen they could determine the effect of such lesions on the relation of a simple learned maze habitHe observed that the ability of rats to learn or remember such tasks as finding their ways through mazes of different levels of difficulty and found that performance in simple mazes was not greatly affected by brain damagerather performance declined as the difficulty of the task increased and or the amount of brain damage increased
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