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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 from Cognition (4th edition).docx

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PSYC 213
Jelena Ristic

Chapter 1Intro scientific psychology looks to redefine folk psychology a set of assumptions and theories based on everyday behaviours of ourselves and others definitionsOxford DictionaryAction or faculty of knowingit is the action of knowing the study of processes the ways in which we become acquainted with thingsit is a faculty themind can be divided into faculties that represent different mental activitiesAwareness consciousness Comprehension quickness of learning info sagacityIntuition immediate insightPersonal acquaintance social knowledgeRecognition categorizing reviewing and revisingSkill reasoning practice knowledge experienceUnderstanding judgement decisionmaking comprehensionGA Miller 1986one of the founders of cognitive psychologycognitive psychology and informationprocessing theory Infoprocessing is the subject matter of cog psyIdea came from communication engineeringall communication can be broken down into 3 major stages Senderencodes messageCommunication channeltransmits signalsReceiverdecodes translates signals to get message Infoprocessing theoryInformation reduces uncertainty in the mind of the receiver The amount of information provided by a message is proportional to the probability of that message occurringThe information provided by a particular message is not determined solely by the signal itself but rather by the whole array of possible messages of which this particular signal is just one Underlying idea of theory Info provided is inversely related to its probability of occurringthe less likely a signal is the more info it conveys Amount of info provided by occurrence of event is quantified by bitsbinary digitEarly testsMerkel in 1885demonstrated people respond more slowly to less likely signalsresults show that as number of alternatives increased from 1 to 10 so did the response time Hicks in 1952confirmed Merkels resultslight stimuli and depression keys for responsestimulus information is intimately concerned with response time When the set of stimuli is small there is little uncertainty as to which signal will occur so the information produced by stimulus is smallWhen group of possible signals grows in size uncertainty increases as to which signal will occur and so the amount of info produced by a stimulus increases
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