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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 from Cognition (4th edition).docx

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PSYC 213
Jelena Ristic

Chapter 3Perceptionvisual agnosia deficiency in the ability to recognize visual information despite being able to see associative agnosia a form of visual agnosia marked by a difficulty naming objectshave the visual ability to reproduce the objects by drawing themtime spaces the experience of seeing units of time in spatial patterns external to themselveshow sensory information is processed how conscious experiences related to the senses emerge and how information in environment guides action in the worldthere is a dependency of perception on both external environment stimulus and internal knowledge of observer Perception as a Function of the Environment Gibsons theory of ecological opticsperception involves directly absorbing visual info present in environment perception is the function of stimulation and stimulation is the function of the environment so perception is a function of the environment Perception is mostly accomplished by sensory organs themselves Ambient optical array AOAall the visual info that is present at a particular point of view Noted that environment is textured and textures consist of repeating patterns Observers point of viewtexture gradients eg cobble stones are all physically the same size but are perceived as being smaller the further away they areChanges in repeating patterns that consist of units that are all the same provides info about the nature of the surface Topological breakagea discontinuity in pattern which is caused by two different patterns intersecting Indicator for edges of objectsScatter reflectiondegree of reflection can tell us about surfaceRough objects reflect light more widely than smooth ones Included observer and environment motion as a fundamental component of perception Classical experiments and theories relied on assumption of a fixed monocular environment Gibsonas the observer moves the entire optical array undergoes a change Transformation of the optic arraychange in the way objects project light onto retina asobserver moves through environment Optic flow fieldcontinually transforming pattern of info in the AOA that results from objectobserver movingWas strongly reacting against studies that relied on visual illusions to learn about perception Illusions dont reveal anything relevant to everyday life Argued for importance of ecological considerations in cognition Todays theories usually combine the classical purely internal mechanisms and Gibsons environment driver onesHis contributions were vital in pulling attention away from simplified reductionist stimuliPattern recognition
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