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sensitivity to eye gaze in autism (Nation & Penny) - PDF

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 213
Professor
Jelena Ristic
Semester
Winter

Description
SENSITIVITY
TO
EYE
GAZE
IN
AUTISM:

IS
IT
NORMAL?
IS
IT
AUTOMATIC?
IS
IT
SOCIAL? K.
NATION
&
S.
PENNY [purpose
of
review
‐
determine
the
circumstances
that
people
with
autism
may
show
dec.
sensitivity
to
eye
gaze
 information] AUTISM:

neurodevelopmental
disorder,
characterized
by
unusual
repetitive
and
stereotypical
behaviors joint
visual
attention

‐
capacity
to
share
attention
with
social
partners
in
a
coordinated
way 
‐
de▯icit
in
the
development
of
joint
visual
attention
is
one
of
the
earliest
behavioral
 manifestations
of
autism
 SPONTANEOUS
GAZE
FOLLOWING
IN
TYPICAL
DEVELOPMENT
AND
AUTISM typical
development
(TD)
timeline
of
spontaneous
gaze
following • 2
months
‐
preferentially
scan
the
eye
region
of
the
face • 4
months
‐
able
to
discriminate
gaze
direction • 6
months
‐
readily
orient
attention
to
an
object
being
looked
at
by
another
person
(only
it
is
inside
their
visual
▯ield) • 9‐10
months
‐
follow
head‐turn
and
gaze
shifts
spontaneously,
readily
orient
attention
to
an
object
being
looked
at
by
another
person
(inside
&
outside
their
visual
▯ield) • 18
months
‐
able
to
follow
eye
gaze
precisely,
regardless
of
the
target's
distance/location [ASD
is
rarely
diagnosed
before
24
months] retrospective
study
‐
analyzed
▯irst
birthday
videos • results:

children
later
diagnosed
with
autism
spent
less
time
looking
at
faces Q.
Can
children
with
autism
discern
where
other
people
are
looking?
(Leekam
et
al.
1997) • yes
‐
able
to
compute
eye
direction
(same
performance
as
TD) ⁃ however;
ASD
poor
at
monitoring
gaze,
do
not
spontaneously
orient
towards
gaze
direction development
of
spontaneous
gaze
following
behavior
is
delayed
&
linked
to
mental
age
(Leekam
et
al.
2000) ‐
ASD:

mental
age
(verbal
&
non‐verbal)
was
a
sig.
predictor
of
performance
at
baseline,
and
highly
correlated
with
number
of
correct
trials
in
observation ‐
mental
age
4
years
:
associated
with
the
ability
to
follow
eye
gaze
and
head
turn
in
a
laboratory
setting
(vs.
TD:
10‐11months) Leekam
et
al.
summary: • non‐autistic
children
with
developmental
delays:

eye
gaze
following
behaviors
emerge
in
line
with
age
(regardless
of
develop.
level) • ASD:

both
chronological
age
&
mental
age
are
important
factors
for
the
development
of
gaze
following
behaviors ⁃ in

a
complex/real‐life
environment,
a
mental
age
of
4
years
may
not
be
enough
to
show
gaze‐following
behavior WHAT
UNDERLIES
DELAYS
IN
SPONTANEOUS
GAZE
FOLLOWING
IN
CHILDREN
WITH
AUTISM? proposed
explanations
for
the
developmental
delay
of
spontaneous
gaze
and
head
turn: 1.
cognitive
approach ⁃ children
with
autism
fail
to
interpret
gaze/head
movement
as
an
index
of
intentionality ⁃ TOM:
gaze
following
does
not
mean
you
understand
the
other
person's
mental
state 2.
contingency
and
learning
from
experience ⁃ gaze
following
behavior
is
learned
from
the
pairing
of
gaze/head‐turn
cue
and
a
rewarding
target
(classical
conditioning)

and/or
a
contingency
between
following
another
 person's
head
turn
and
a
rewarding
event
(operant
conditioning) ⁃ half
of
children
with
autism
improved
signi▯icantly
on
a
conditioned
head
turn
procedure
(*but
how
sustainable
is
it?) 3.
lack
of
social
attention ⁃ lack
of
social
attention
despite
intact
general
attention
(mixed
results
&
lack
of
clinical
control
groups) ⁃ or
de▯icits
could
be
due
to
a
general
problem
in
disengaging
attention
from
one
stimulus
and
shifting
it
to
another REFLEXIVE
ATTENTIONAL
CUEING:
METHODS
AND
TYPICAL
DEVELOPMENT posner‐style
spatial
cueing
paradigm:

picture
of
a
face
is
shown
(with
eyes
diverted
to
the
left/right
‐
the
cue),
then
the
subject
must
identify
a
target
stimulus
which
appears
 towards
the
gaze
direction
(valid
location)
or
opposite
to
the
gaze
direction
(non‐valid
location) validity
effect:

adults
are
faster
to
detect
a
stimulus
in
the
valid
location
(stimulus
&
gaze
are
in
the
same
direction) • even
when
the
cue
is
uninformative
and
non‐predictive,
subjects
show
a
validity
effect • stimulus
onset
asynchrony
(SOA)
range
105
ms
‐
1000
ms • seen
in
infants
as
young
as
4
months conclusion:
tendency
to
orient
attention
towards
eye
gaze
is
re▯lexive IS
REFLEXIVE
ORIENTING
TO
EYE
GAZE
INTACT
IN
AUTISM? experiment
(Senju
et
al
2004) • counter‐informative
cue
was
given
to
cue
stimulus
(cue
was
invalid
for
80%
of
trials);
subjects
were
explicitly
informed
of
this
fact • children
with
autism
show
a
comparable
validity
effect
to
eye
gaze
orienting • suggests
that
abnormalities
with
re▯lexive
attentional
o
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