• Paivio‟s Dual-Coding Theory: Imagery is defined as the ease with which
something elicits a mental image
• Dual Coding Theory: The theory that verbal and nonverbal systems are
alternative ways of representing events
• the units that comprise the verbal system Logogens and Imagens
• Logogens: The units that consists of the verbal system contains the info
underlying our use of a word (term by Morten)
• Imagens: the units that make up the non verbal system. both of these contain
info that generates mental images
• Imagens operate synchronously: the parts that they contain are simultaneously
available for inspection. in other words, you can just imagine something right
away! for ex. when you imagine a group of people, you can imagine their nose
hair and all that and you can see them in whole. „correspond to natural objects,
holistic parts of objects, and natural groupings of object.
• However, Logogens, it happens sequentially. for ex. when you listen to a
sentence, the words are not presented all at once, but come one after the
• Ex.// Dining table; even if youre somewhere else, you can imagine your home
dining table. this is part of imagens, and when you explain it in words, thats
using logogens. (Paivio)
• Concreteness: the degree of whether the imagery is concrete (ex. like table)
enough to easily put it in words or not (ex. virtue, idea, theory). Book def.// the
degree to which a word refers to „concrete objects, persons, places, or things
that can be heard, felt, smelled, or tasted.
• Imagery and concreteness are usually found to be very highly correlated this
has led Paivio to argue that imagery and concreteness measure two aspects of
the same process because our experience of concrete events is necessarily
saturated with images.
• Love, pain, and etc are not concrete things, they are referred to as emotions.
• Research studies (pg. 198, 16 pairs of words) GO READ!!!!!!
• If the stimulus is concrete, then it leads to much better recall of the response
than if the stimulus is abstract. Concrete words are available in both logogens
and imagens whereas abstract words will only be coded verbally.
• Left and right hemispheres of the brain: the theory that the left hemi.
controls speech and is better at processing verbal material than is the right
hemi, which is better at performing nonverbal tasks. therefore, in ex, concrete
words will elicit greater activity in the right hemi than will abstract words.
however, Fiebach and Friederici found in their studies through fMRI that this is
not necessarily true.
• Lexical decision task: participants are shown concrete words, abstract words,
and pseudo words (pseudo means fake) which one or two letters have een
randomly replaced. they are to indicate whether each stimulus is a word or not.
this experiment allos one to compare the functional brain images that are
elicited by abstract and concrete words even though tthe participant makes the
same response to both abstract and concrete words. the results showed that
abstract and concrete words showed that abstract and concrete words did not
elicit heightened activity in the right hemisphere. Fiebach and Friederici
concluded that the hypothesis that concrete words yield greater right hemi
activation than abstract words was not supported.
• Mnemonic techniques: procedures used to aid memory
• Method of loci: A mnemonic technique based on places and images.
• Ex.// person going grocery shopping. the person form images of various
locations around the house, such as the living room, bedroom, etc. In order to
remember items on the shopping list,the person needs to form vivid images of
the items, such as milk and bread, and then relate those images to specific
locations. imagining someone miliking a cow in the living room will do. while
shopping, the person knows what items to buy by imagining each place and
recalling the images located there.
• Distinctiveness: the hypothesis that the more distinctive the item, the easier it
is to recall.
• Von Restorff effect: if one item in a set is different from the others, it will be
more likely to be recalled.
• When a participant was to see humourous cartoon, literal cartoon, and weird
cartoon and was asked to describe all three he remembered humourous>
• Apparently, humourous items is more memorable than weird items.
• People sometimes hide their valuables in an unlikely place. the study of
Winograd and Soloway shows that items rated low in likelihood were
remembered less well than items rated high in likelihood, regardless of the level
of rated memorability. no matter how memorable people think that a location
will be, people wil infact remember it less well if it is in an unlikely location than
people will if it is a likely location.
• the difference between method of loci and trying to remember which unlikely
place one hid his valuables: when you use the method of loci, you first learn a
set of places, and then store objects in them by forming an imaginary
relationship between the two. then you try to remember something, you first
recall the locus and then the object stored there. the process of recall goes
from location to object. in contrast, there is usually no imaginary relationship
created when you store objects in special places, and the process of recall
goes from object to location.
• Special places strategy: people try to put items in places that they can easily
remember but that other will be unale to discover.
• Synaesthesia: psychological states of when a stimulus that is appropriate to
one sense (such as hearing), another sense (such as colour) gets aroused and
experiences. For ex.// Some people can hear a sound, and they can taste it,
see it, or even smell it.
• most common experiences that synaesthetes 9people who have such
experiences every day) is chromaesthesia; coloured hearing.
• Inducers: the cue that elicits a synaesthetic experience
• concurrents: synaesthetic response itself.
• Incongruent display: it confuses synaesthetes