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Chapter 9

CH.9 txtbook notes.docx

6 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 213
Jelena Ristic

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LanguageTree Diagrams a description of a process that proceeds from one level at which a number of relationships are simultaneously present to other levels at which these relationships are serially ordered Wundt uses tree diagrams to describe the relationships between different parts of our overall experience of a situation The process of speech proceeds from one level at which a number of relationships are simultaneously present to another level at which these relationships are serially ordered as a succession of words in a sentence The listener can reconstruct the speakers experience by reversing the process whereby the speaker generated the sentence Language openended verbal communication that consists of all possible sentencesSpeech those sentences that are actually spoken only a small subset of languageChomsky argues that processes that made a sentence grammatical were different from the processes that made a sentence meaningful critical feature of a finite state grammar is that every word in a sentence is produced in a sequence starting with the first word and ending with the last word Chomskys objection to finite state grammars is that it is impossible to construct a finite state grammar that will generate all and only the grammatical utterances of a natural language Finite state grammars are too simple to underlie the complexity of natural languages one of the problems with finite state grammars is that they operate at only one level they genereate sentences by a process that moves only from left to rightPhrase structure rules Rules describing the way in which symbols can be rewritten as other symbols These rules allow a number of different sentences to be derived Grammatical transformations rules operating on entire strings of symbols converting them to new strings an example of such a procedure is the passive transformation John admired kevin the pasive transformation Kevin was admired by John converts the string underlying the terminal string to produce something like the following The passive transformation is an example of optional transformation it is not necessary for optional transformations to be applied in order to make a sentence grammatical Chomsky defined kernel sentences as ones that are produced without optional transformations this suggests that kernel sentences might be easier to understand and remember because they require fewer transformations however it was difficult to demonstrate that the number of transformationsand not such variables as sentence lengthdetermined ease of understanding passive sentences such as johnson was admired by boswell has more words than its active counterpart and may be more difficult to process simply for that reasona person has a commmand of a language on the one hand it means that the person has internalized a system of rules that relates sound to meaning
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