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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Memory Systems.docx

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McGill University
PSYC 213
Signy Sheldon

Chapter 6 Memory Systems Tulving and the Theory of Memory Systemso Encoding SpecificityPrinciple of encoding specificity regulates memory the way that an item is retrieved from memory depends on the way that it was stored in memory A cue is more likely to lead to the recall of an item if the cue was initially encoded along with that itemEx if the word bridge is encoded as an engineering structure then the cue a card game will not be as likely to lead to recall of bridge Tulving and Thomson 1973Participants learned a list of 24 pairs of wordsThe pairs were only weakly associated and one of the words was printed in lower case other in upper First word of each pair is the weak cue wordThe second word is the target wordThen they were given a task where they were given strong cue wordsThey wrote a list of words that came to mind when they were given these cuesOut of the list they generated they should have recognised about 18 target words but they only recognised 4this means that the partcipants were able to generate target words without them being able to recognise them as being target words Finally they were given the 24 weak cue words and asked to recall the target wordsParticipants were able to recall about 15 of target words ResultsParticipants were generating words in response to the strong cues that were the same as the words that they had learned in response to the weak cuesHowever they were often unable to recognise the words they were generatingRecognition failure of recallable words Conditions can be created where info about a word event is available in memory in a form sufficient for the production of an appropriate response yet a literal copy of the word is not recognised Nature of encoding at input will influence the memory trace for the itemIn the above expts participants learned the target words in the context of the weak cuesSo strong cues werent part of encoding andyielded target words only because of general knowledge o Episodic and Semantic MemoryEpisodic memoryautobiographical event the memory system concerned with personally experienced events Ex I remember seeing a flash of light a short while ago followed by a sound a few seconds laterSemantic memorygeneral knowledge the memory system concerned with knowledge of words concepts and their relationshipsEx I remember that the chemical formula for table salt is NaCl o Neuropsychological Evidence for the Independence of Episodic and Semantic MemoryKlein Loftus Kihlstrom 1996 study concerning selfknowledge of an amnesic patient WJ WJ suffered retrograde amnesia the inability to recall events prior to the injuryTherefore her episodic memory was impaired
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