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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Perception.docx

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McGill University
PSYC 213
Signy Sheldon

Chapter 3 Perception Visual agnosia: a deficiency in the ability to recognize visual information despite being able to see no sensory impairment, but cant cognitively interpret visual information visual recognition not always completely impaired specific to visual domain, objects can be identified by touch Associative agnosia: a form of agnosia marked by a difficulty naming objects cant identify objects, but can draw them Time spaces: The perceptual experience of time units such as days of the week or months of the year as occupying spatial location outside of the body. Illustration of how a perceptual experience can sometimes be very different from the sensory stimulation Perception: Processing sensory information such that it produces a meaningful understanding of the information. Important to distinguish between the external environment and the internal knowledge of the observer. both the environment and the observers knowledge contribute to the perception Stimulus: an entity in the external environment that can be perceived by an observer. Perception as a function of the environment J.J. Gibson (1961, 1966): in real-world situations, the sensory organs receive a complex array of information that can be directly apprehended and used to guide action. Thought that perception is accomplished by the sensory organs themselves Believed that optical illusions were not relevant for everyday life he was concerned with veridical perceptions more interested in situations where people are moving and picking up information fom a complex, changing world Theory of ecological optics: The proposal that perception involves directly absorbing the visual information present in the environment. Ambient optical array (AOA): All the visual information that is present at a particular point of view. from any view point, a unique pattern of light enters the eyes the environment is textured and the textures consist of repeating patterns Texture gradients: Gradual changes in the pattern of a surface that is normally assumed to be uniform, which provides information about surface characteristics such as whether the surface is receding or curved. Topological breakages: The discontinuity created by the intersection of two texture gradients. useful indicators for edges of objects Scatter-reflection: The degree to which light scatters when reflected from a surface. Gibson included both the observer and environment motion as fundamental components of perception He thought that as the observer moves, the entire optical array undergoes a change Transformation: In Gibsons theory, the change of optical information hitting the eye when the observer moves through the environment. Optic flow field: The movement of objects/observer through the environment produces changes in what is seen. e.g. moving dots on a computer display / the view from your car while drivingPattern recognition Theories of pattern recognition are different from Gibsons theory: 1. They do not consider the complex array of light information reflecting from all surfaces/objects. The focus is on specific objects or patterns. 2. They focus on how it is that we build internal representation of objects/patterns Pattern recognition: The ability to recognize an event as an instance of a particular category of event. came from computer science People are able to identify ++ of the configurations with which they are presented e.g. recognize words in a sentence/recognize a coffee cup Machines outperform humans in highly constrained situations Humans outperform machines in real-world tasks. Percept: Meaningful interpretation of sensory information Memory trace: the trace that an experience leaves in the brain Recognizing an object involves contact between the emerging percept and memory. Hffding function: when an experience makes contact with a memory trace, resulting in recognition. Template matching Possible that we store templates in memory that correspond to the standard forms of the configurations we see Template: A model against which a stimulus is compared to determine whether it belongs to a particular category Prototype: A model that possesses all the typical characteristics of its class. Template-matching theory: Comparing a stimulus with templates. When they match, the stimulus is recogn
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