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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

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McGill University
PSYC 213
Jelena Ristic

Chapter 3: Perception Key Terms: - Visual Agnosia: A deficiency in the ability to recognize visual information despite being able to see. - Associative Agnosia: A form of visual agnosia marked by a difficulty naming objects. - Time Spaces: The perceptual experience of time units such as days of the week or months of the year as occupying special locations outside of the body. - Perception: Processing sensory information such that it produces a meaningful understanding of the information. - Stimulus: An entity in the external environment that can be perceived by another. - Theory of Ecological Optics: The proposal that perception involves directly absorbing the visual information present in the environment. - Ambient Optical Array (AOA): All the visual information that is present at a particular point of view. - Texture Gradients: Gradual changes in the pattern of a surface that is normally assumed to be uniform, which provides information about surface characteristics such as whether the surface is receding or curved. - Topological Breakage: The discontinuity created by the intersection of two texture gradients. - Scatter-Reflection: The degree to which light scatters when reflected from a surface. - Transformation: In the theory proposed by Gibson, the change of optical information hitting the eye when the observer moves through the environment. - Optic Flow Field: The movement of objects or of the observer through the environment produces changes in what is seen. - Percept: Meaningful interpretation of sensory information. - Memory Trace: The trace that an experience leaves in the brain. - Hffding Function: When an experience makes contact with a memory trace, resulting in recognition. - Pattern Recognition: The ability to recognize an event as an instance of a particular category of events. - Template: A model against which a stimulus is compared to determine whether it belongs to a particular category. - Prototype: A model that posses all the typical characteristics of its class. - Template-Matching Theory: Comparing a stimulus with template; when they match the stimulus is recognized as belonging to that category. - Multiple-Trace Memory Model: Traces of each individual experience are recorded in memory. No matter how often a particular kind of event is experienced, a memory trace of the event is recorded each time. - Probe: Secondary memory can be activated by means of a probe from primary memory. - Echo: When a probe goes out from primary to secondary memory, memory traces are activated to the extent that they are similar to the probe. - Feature Detection theory: Detecting patterns on the basis of their individual features. - Pandemonium: A model of pattern recognition consisting of three levels: data, cognitive demons, and decision demons. - Feature: A component or characteristic of a stimulus. - Cognitive Demon: A feature detector in the pandemonium model that decides whether the stimulus matches its pattern. - Decision Demon: A feature detector in the pandemonium model that determines which pattern is being recognized. - Contrast Energy: The degree of contrast between letters in a word and the background they appear on leading to the relative ease with which a stimulus can be discriminated from the background against which it is displayed. - Sequelching: The tendency of the nervous system to inhibit the processing of unclear features. - Geons: The basic geometric shapes that comprise objects. - Recognition by Components (RBC): A model of perception based on subdividing objects into a basic set of geometric shapes. - Recoverability: the degree to which geons can be made out in a degraded image of an object. - Top-Down (User-Driven) Processing: When perception (or other cognitive processes) is driven by expectations and prior knowledge. - Context Effects: The influence that the situation plays on the perception of a stimulus. - Bottom-Up (Data-Driven) Processing: When perception (or other cognitive processes) results from the combination of individual pieces of sensory information. - Moon Illusion: The tendency for the moon to appear larger when on the horizon than when high in the sky. - Apparent-Distance Theory: An explanation for the moon illusion; it posits that the moon on the horizon appears larger because distance cues lead the observer to perceive it as being nearer that the zenith moon. - Angle-of-Regard Theory: A theory developed to explain the moon illusion, which states that the zenith moon appears smaller than the horizon moon because a person has to raise his or her eyes or head to view it. - Jumbled word Effect: The ability to read words in sentences despite having mixed up letters in the middle of some words. - Parallel Distributed processing (PDP): A model of perception that proposes that different features are processed at the same time by different units connected together in a network. - Word Superiority Effect: It is easier to identify a letter (e.g. D) if it appears in a word (e.g. WORD) than if it appears alone. - Empirical Theory of Colour Vision: The proposal that colour perception involves not only the processing of wavelengths of light but also the influence of prior experiences about how different lighting conditions affect the appearance of the colours of objects. - McGurk Effect: The auditory experience of the syllable da when seeing a mouth silently saying ga while the same time hearing a voice say ba. - Change Blindness: The common failure of people to notice changes to an object or scene. - Grand illusion of Perception: The experience of a clear and detailed picture of the world in ones visual field. - Feature Integration Theory (FIT): Before we can attend to objects in the world we must extract the features that make up these objects. - Preattentive Processing: Automatic extraction of features before an object can be perceived. - Feature Binding: The combining of visual features by attention to form whole objects. - Attentive Processing: Combining features into a whole object through attention. - Pop-Out: Grab attention. - Blind Spot: A region in the eye where the optic nerve leaves the retina; it does not contain any photoreceptors. - Perceptual Completion (Filling-In): - Gestalt Psychology: A branch of psychology that focuses on dealing with wholes rather than parts. - Bi-Stable Figures: Images from which to separate percepts can be formed. - Figure-Ground Segmentation: Perceptual organization of a scene such that one element becomes the foreground (figure) and the other element(s) become(s) the background (ground). - Holistic: Focusing on the whole configuration of an object. - Atomistic: Focusing on the features or components of objects. - Organizational Principles: The rules that explain the ways in which people are able to perceive whole objects or events from individual parts. - Group: The way in which individual parts are combined to form a whole. - Principle of Experience: A principle of Gestalt organization stating that elements are grouped based on the prior experience and knowledge or the observer. - Denotivity: the degree to which an object is meaningful and familiar to an individual. - Principle of Proximity: Things that are near one another are grouped together. - Principle of Closure: Things that form closed shapes are grouped together.
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