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Chapter 7

Chapter 7

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PSYC 213
Jelena Ristic

COGNITION CHAP. 7: IMAGERY Key Terms Dual-coding Theory (p.196) The theory that verbal and non-verbal systems are alternative ways of representing events Logogens (p.196) The units containing the information underlying our use of a word that comprise the verbal system Imagens (p.196) The units containing information that generate mental images that make up the non-verbal system Concreteness (p.196) The degree to which a word refers to concrete objects, persons, places, or things that can be heard, felt, smelled, or tasted Left and Right Hemispheres (p.199) The theory that the left hemisphere of the brain controls speech and is better at processing verbal material than is the right hemisphere, which is better at performing non-verbal tasks Lexical decision task (p.200) Participants must indicate whether each stimulus is a word or not Method of loci (p.200) A mnemonic technique based on places and images Bizarre imagery (p.200) The hypothesis that bizarre images facilitate recall Mnemonic techniques (p.200) Procedures used to aid memory Distinctiveness (p.201) The hypothesis that the more distinctive the item, the easier it is to recall Von Restorff Effect (p.202) If one item in a set is different from the others, it will be more likely to be replaced Special places strategy (p.203) People try to put items in places that they can easily remember, but that others will be unable to discover Metamemory (p.204) The name for our beliefs about how memory works Synaesthesia (p. 204) Refers to the power of the stimulus appropriate to one sense (i.e. sound) to arouse an experience appropriate to another sense (i.e. colour) Chromaesthesia (p.204) Coloured hearing Apoptosis (p.205) Programmed pruning of neurons Strong synaesthetes (p.206) People who are susceptible to an inducer in one sensory modality (i.e. sound) producing a concurrent image in another sensory modality (i.e. colour) Cross-modal effects (p.206) The ability to appreciate that the sensations of one modality can be similar to those in another modality Weak synaesthetes (p.207) People who can appreciate cross-modal associations, without having strong synaesthetic experiences Eidetic imagery (p.207) Images projected onto the external world that persist for a minute or more even after a stimulus, such as a picture, is removed Cognitive dedifferentiation (p.207) Perceptual processes that typically function independently are fused instead Icon (p.207) The initial, brief representation of the information contained in a visual stimulus Objective distances (p.213) The true distances between objects in the real world are preserved in our mental images Categorical Distance (p.214) The number of units that are traversed during mental scanning, for instance, landmarks on an island map, rooms in a building, or counties in a state Images as anticipations (p.215) The hypothesis that an image is a readiness to perceive something Emergent Properties (p.220) New properties that emerge when a mental image is constructed Analogue form of representation (p.221) The hypothesis that a mental image embodies the essential relationships of the thing it represents Egocentric perspective transformations (p.221) You imagine yourself moving, while the objects in the environment remain still Spatial Framework (p.222) An imaginary space with one vertical (above-below) and 2 horizontal dimensions (ahead-behind and left-right) Propositional knowledge (p.222) The hypothesis that knowledge about the world is stored in memory in the form of propositions Cognitive map (p.223) Information from the environment is worked over and elaborated into a tentative cognitive-like map indicating routes and paths and environmental relationships Egocentric frame of reference (p.224) People use information available from their current perspective to orient themselves Path integration (p.224) Ones position in relation to an important location is continuously updated as one moves through the environment Mental Models (p.224) The theory that we construct a mental model of the situation to which a set of premises refers, on the basis of which we draw conclusions,(i.e. representations of situations that enable us to understand and reason about them) MEMORY & IMAGERY Paivos Dual-Coding Theory Images are a subjective phenomenon In Paivios theory, imagery is defined as the easy with which something elicits a mental image, where the term mental image refers to experiences such as a mental picture, or sound Dual-coding theory: postulates the existence of verbal and non-verbal systems that are alternative ways of representing events o Ex: An event can be described in words using the verbal system, or it can be imagined using the non-verbal system Thus, information can be represented in either system, using the code that is peculiar to that system See Figure 7.1 p.197 o Represents the relationships between the verbal & non-verbal systems o Follow figure from the top down o Incoming information can be either verbal or non-verbal o After being picked up by the sensory systems, information can be represented in either the verbal or the non-verbal system o Units that comprise the verbal system are called logogens contain the information underlying our use of a word Operate sequentially o Units that comprise the non-verbal system are called imagens contain the information that generates mental images Correspond to natural objects, holistic parts of objects, and natural groupings of objects Operate synchronously: the parts that they contain are simultaneously available for inspection A variety of related mental images can be generated from imagens
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