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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 213
Professor
Jelena Ristic
Semester
Fall

Description
CH 10 - Problem Solving 18/01/2010 14:39:00 Gestalt Theory Gestalt = configuration Gestalt consciousness = not one event after another but organized into coherent whole Gestalt switch = sudden change in way information organized o Eg. Al of sudden work out another possible solution to problem (Prob) and have NEW view of answer Insight Problem: o Given all info need to solve it o However initial representation of prob prevents you from seeing solution o Prob must be restructured before can be solved Examples Gestalt psychologists work on insight Kohler Mentality of Apes o Insight: ability understand how parts situation related to one another Eg. Chimpanzee 1) try reach fruit outside his cage with short stick inside his cage = no success 2) spot long stick just out reach outside cage 3) insight = realize can use short stick to reach long stick to reach fruit = put all parts situation together Wertheimer Productive Thinking Founder of gestalt o Productive thinking= result from having to grasp general principles that apply in a particular situation in which you find yourself o educated learning applying known formulas and methods can stand in way of seeing the whole + simple answer need to use insight to look at current situation not blindly apply previous learning o Structured Thinking= Tendency reproduce thinking appropriate for other situation, but not current one o ex. Is number 1,000,000,000,008 divisible by 9 structured thinking : divide 1 2 digits by 9 notice remainder = 1 therefore (;.) last digit will be 8+ remainder 1 = 9 ;. Divisible by 9 insight thinking : its made up of 2 numbers 999,999 ,999,999 + 9 =1,000,000,000,008 because both numbers divisible by 9 there sum will be also Duncker Functional Fixedness previous experiences effect on prob solving Analysis of situation: o what is function of objects in situation o how can they be used to solve it o how have I used them before Functional Fixedness o Obvious use objects (what designed for) prevents us form seeing correct way using to solve prob o to solve prob need overcome functional fixedness, o may need to realise obvious way doesnt work to be open to reorganize prob so can see solution Maier the Concept of Direction Created most difficult insight prob the Nine Dot Problem o Look on p 300 o Fixated on unnecessary assumption (only draw lines inside square) prevent you from seeing solution o Overcome fixation = can solve o Hint = consistent w direction persona thinking is taking Only useful if corresponds with difficulty participant already experienced o Weisberg and Alba: If give participant hint (can draw lines outside square) will be able to solve prob easier But when given hint many still not solve ;. NO EVIDENCE Gestalt view: once fixation broken solution appears in flash of insight or smoothly as one step leads to another = controversy o Ellen tried disprove: Maier experiment Gave hint many got flash insight If flash insight not attribute solution to experimenters hint New organization suddenly there masks the transformation stage of their problem solving Argued hint given by Weisberg and Alba was irrelevant to direction participants thoughts INSIGHT IS INVOLUNTARY Difference between non insight prob and insight prob = Insight solution appears suddenly without warning Non insight problem solving (NIP) gradual stepwise process to solution o Eg algerbra o o Metcalfe + Weibe as participants solve NIP should be able tell when close to solution Getting warm Feeling of knowing = feeling if will be able to solve problem ^ as get closer to solution judgment participant makes about own knowledge = ex Metacognition (assessing own cognitive process)
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