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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 213
Professor
Jelena Ristic

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Chapter 11 Reasoning, Judgment, and Choice By David Chak 1) Reasoning: Thought process that yields a conclusion from premises (percepts, thoughts, or assertions) 2) Syllogistic logic (also known as Aristotelian or categorical reasoning) : a. A syllogism consists of two premises and a conclusion. b. Each of the premises specifies a relationship between the two categories c. Understanding different possible ways of interpreting a premise is important d. Four forms: • Universal Affirmative  All A are B B  Interpretations: A  All A are B but some B are not A  All A are B, then all B are A B • Universal Negative  No A are B  Interpretation: A B  No A are B, no B are A are the same • Particular Affirmative  Some B are A  Interpretations:  Some A are B then some A are not B / Some B are not A as well as some B arA A B A, B A B  At least one B, and possibly all B are A • Particular Negative  Some A are not B  Interpretations: A B  Some A are not B, then some B are not A B  Some A are not B, then some A are B A B  At least one A, and possibly all A are not B 3) Logicism: The belief that logical reasoning is an essential part of human nature 4) Practical syllogism: occurs when the conclusion drawn from two premises becomes an action. (Henle, 1962/1968) a. Premise 1: It is important for me to eat dinner b. Premise 2: The only dinner I have in the fridge are kraft dinner c. Conclusion: Therefore, it is important for me to eat kraft dinner d. It is the natural mode of functioning of the conscious mind (Henle, 1962/1968) 5) Effect of content on Syllogistic Reasoning a. People accept the conclusion to an invalid syllogism if they believe that the conclusion is true in the real world (Galotti, 1989) b. Effect of the participant’s beliefs is greater is syllogism is invalid (Newstead,Pollard,Evans, Allen, 1992) • Participants initially determine whether or not the conclusion is believable. If it is unbelievable, they try to find some ways of thinking about the premises that renders the conclusion invalid. • If the conclusion is believable, they try to determine if there is not some way to interpret the premises that makes the conclusion acceptable. 6) Interpretation of some a. People reason according to the specific way they interpret the premises (Begg and Harris, 1982; Ceraso & Provitera, 1971) b. Interpretation of some is a good example of that, we ordinarily interpret some as “some but not all” but logically, some means “at least one, and possibly all” 7) Theory of syllogistic reasoning: mental models & natural deduction systems 8) People construct a mental model of the situation of which a set of premises refers, and then draw conclusion that are consistent with the model (Johnson- Laird, 1988) 9) Relational Reasoning: a. Reasoning involving premises that express the relations between items (transitive relations: A is bigger than B) b. Linear syllogism / three-term series problem: two comparative sentences from which a conclusion must be drawn. Eg, B < A, B > C, then C is the smallest ( A > B > C) c. Iconic: A principles of Johnson-Laird’s mental models theory: the relations between the parts of the model correspond to the relations between the parts of the situation it represents d. Emergent consequences: You get more out of the mental model than you put in (Johnson-Laird 2005) e. Parsimony: People tend to construct only the simplest mental model if possible (Johnson-Laird) 10) Natural deduction system makes use of propositions and deduction rules to draw conclusions from these proposition. 11) Propositions are sentences built using connectives such as if…then, and, or and not. a. Entailing: proposition 1 is said to entail proposition 2 if proposition 1 follows from 2 b. p AND q entails p, q: coffee and tea available infers coffee avail, and tea avail c. p OR q and NOT p entails q: Coffee or Tea and not tea infers Coffee d. The above two examples along with other rules are the elementary inference principles that we rely on to solve reasoning problems e. People carry out mental proofs to complete deduction tasks, conclusion are derived 12) Liar paradox: box 11.1, page 336 13) Wason’s Puzzles: a. In order to study the reasoning process, we can invent tasks that directly tap interesting aspects of reasoning. b. Generative problem: • Participants are told that 3 number 2,4,6 conform to a simple relational rule that the experimenter has in mind, and their task is to discover the rule by generating sequences of 3 numbers. The experimenter tells them each time whether the rule has been followed. • It is a better strategy to propose sequences that are not consistent with the hypothesis about the rule (Eliminative strategy: attempt to falsify hypothesis and thus eliminating incorrect beliefs (scientific inquiry) ) • Ordinary people tend to seek confirmatory evidence for their hypothesis, known as confirmation bias c. Selection Task: • Four card problem based on conditional reasoning. • Conditional reasoning: reasoning that requires the use of the conditional statements (if….then…) • Truth tables: A way of presenting the various combinations of the constituents of logical statements, Below is the truth table of if p then q. P Q If P then Q T T T T F F F T T F F T • Shows confirmation bias, however, Johnson-Laird and Oak-hill (1985) argues that actively seeking information that will disconfirm a rule
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