PSYC 213 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Cognitive Ergonomics, Spoonerism, Cognitive Psychology

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Published on 19 Nov 2012
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PSYC 213 Cognition
Chapter 14: Applied Cognitive Psychology
Summary
This chapter considers how cognitive psychology has been applied to address many real-
world problems. Examples of applied cognitive psychology discussed in previous chapters
include mnemonics (ways to facilitate remembering and prevent forgetting) and eyewitness
testimony (legal process determines the conditions under which we should take eyewitness
testimony seriously or be skeptical).
Areas of study that psychologists have focused on in this chapter:
Human Error
-Classified in terms of the possible sources of different kinds of error
-Norman/Reason proposed ATS theory
-Spoonerism: speech errors
Ergonomics
-how to arrange keyboard, chairs and desks to make office work both productive and
enjoyable, also called human factors research
-User friendly objects: help a person to perform a task in a natural way, which is easy to
understand and use
-a work situation is analyzed in terms of three different interfaces: task interface,
organizational interface (of concern to device manufacturers, administrators and
industrial/organizational psychologists) and user interface (cognitive psychologists)
-Keyboards: QWERTY accidental series of events may lock technology into a particular
irreversible path, other keyboards aren’t easier to use
-Text Messaging: combine the immediacy of a phone call with the convenience of an
answering machine message and the premeditation of e-mail. Textish tendencies increase
with the intimacy of the relationship between sender and receiver, inner speech, makes
communication more private
-Pointing Devices: the more frequently a target is used, the closer it should be to the
pointer. If the user must make the pointer travel a longer distance, then the target should
be made as large as possible.
Affordances
-Notion introduced by J.J Gibson
-Instructions: if an object affords action, instructions are not necessary
-Presenting Information: the importance of including clear instructions and illustrations
for complicated devices
-Searching for Information: the accuracy of users’ assessment of information scent will
determine how successful their foraging strategy will be
Designing the User Interface
-Recognition: easily identifiable meanings to symbols or icons
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