Textbook Notes (368,123)
Canada (161,661)
Psychology (1,418)
PSYC 215 (296)
John Lydon (79)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 .docx

33 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 215
John Lydon

Chapter 1 Characterizing Social Psychology  Social psychology the scientific study of the feelings, thoughts and behaviors of individuals in social situations  Social psychologists attempt to explain what lies behind phenomena  Central question: How does the situation that people find themselves in affect their behavior?  Hannah Arendt- “banality of evil”, we are all capable of brutality  Kurt Lewin- founder of modern social psychology  Lewin suggested that people act as a function of the forces working against them  Forces are psychological and physical  Attributes interact with situations to produce resulting behaviors  Role of situation  Other people and situations can change our beliefs and behaviors by explicitly telling us too or by modeling behavior The Milgram Experiment  Call for men to volunteer in learning study  Mix of volunteers  Assigned “teacher” and “learner”  “Teacher” was asked to administer increasing shocks for every “learner’s” wrong answer to a question  If the teacher became hesitant and looked to the experimenter, the authority figure would urge them to go on  80% continued past the 150-volt mark  62.5% went to the 450-volt level  Experimenters were shocked at results  Normal people became brutal under the circumstance  Unfamiliar situation, decreased responsibility (since the experimenter explicitly took responsibility for whatever happened), step-by-step nature of the experiment all contributed to how people acted in the situation Seminarians as Samaritans  Darley and Batson experiment  Asked student at a religious school what the basis of their religious learning was  Told to deliver a sermon, and how to get there  Some were in a hurry and some had plenty of time  Nature of religious orientation was not a predictor of whether or not they stopped to offer someone assistance  Depended on if they were in a hurry or not  As a group, the seminarians helped, but only if they were not in a rush The Fundamental Attribution Error  Governed by situational factors  Tend to over estimate dispositions (internal factors such as beliefs, values, personality traits, or abilities) in determining behavior  Fundamental attribution error (Lee Ross) the failure to recognize the importance of situational influences on behavior, and the corresponding tendency to overemphasize the importance of disposition or traits on behavior Channel Factors  Channel factors (Kurt Lewin) certain situational circumstances that appear unimportant on the surface but that can have great consequences for behavior, either facilitating, or blocking it or guiding behavior in a particular direction  Ex. Leventhal experiment with Yale students getting flu vaccinations THE ROLE OF CONSTRUAL  Construal people’s interpretation and inference about the stimuli or situations they confront  Perceptions drive behaviors Interpreting Reality  Assumptions about what we see are automatic and unconscious  Gestalt psychology based on the German world gestalt, meaning “form” or “figure”, this approach stresses the fact that people perceive objects not by means of some automatic registering device, but by active, usually unconscious interpretation of what the object represents as a whole  Judgments and beliefs of the social world are also constructed from perceptions  Prisoner’s dilemma a situation involving payoffs to two people who must decide whether to “cooperate” or “defect”. In the end, trust and cooperation lead to higher joint payoffs than mistrust and defection  Liberman and colleagues experiment involved playing this game with university students but giving it different names (“community game” vs. “wall-street game”)  The terminology used prompted different construals Schemas  Schema a knowledge structure consisting of any organized body of stored information  Asch experiment demonstrates that schemas operate to subtly influence judgments  Students were asked to rank professors in terms of prestige  One professor was a “politician”  Before hand, students were told that other groups of students had either ranked politicians at the top or at the bottom  This activated schemas for the students, and influenced their rankings because some would consider politicians to be prestigious people, while others viewed them as corrupt Stereotypes  Stereotypes are schemas for a certain group of people  Judge individuals based on particular person schemas we have  Necessary to function effectively and efficiently  Can be applied in the wrong way and to the wrong people, which has consequences AUTOMATIC VERSUS CONTROLLED PROCESSING  Mind processes information in two ways  (1) Automatic and unconscious, often based on emotional factors  (2) Systematic and conscious, often based on careful thought  Automatic and controlled processing can result in incompatible attitudes in the same person toward members of outgroups  Someone who is not openly racist may still associate negative connotations with a stranger after hearing words like “Black” or “African American”  Unconscious/automatic processing often results in implicit attitudes, whereas controlled processing results in explicit attitudes  Implicit vs. explicit attitudes Types of Unconscious Processing  William James – automatic mental processing that is involved with “skill acquisition” (i.e. driving a car)  Other type of automatic mental processing occurs when beliefs and behaviors are generated without our awareness of the cognitive processes behind them  Rare to be able to explain conscious reasons for our judgments about people or situations  I.e. People often chose the last nightgown to be the best quality for no apparent reason, and were shocked when they were told that they only picked it because it was the last one showed  Zajonc experiment – when visual stimuli are presented rapidly without our awareness, they can still affect people’s beliefs and behaviors Functions of Unconscious Processing  Unconscious processing is a matter of efficiency  Automatic processes can operate faster and can operate in parallel  Efficiency of unconscious processes is not only convenient but also might benefit survival  I.e. Muscular feedback from body positions is helpful in determining whether an object is desirable or not  Ancestors may have depended on such fast processing for survival EVOLUTION AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR: HOW WE ARE THE SAME  Evolution may explain behaviors  Natural selection an evolutionary process that molds animals and plants so that traits that enhance the probability of survival and reproduction are passed on to subsequent generations  Characteristics better adapted to an environment are selected  Natural selection is important for behavioral characteristics as well as physical ones  Number and importance of universal truths that pertain to humans is consistent with the idea that what we share may be the result of natural selection and is encoded in our genes Human Universals  Many human behaviors and institutions are universal  Acquired basic behavioral propensities  Humans share some of these characteristics with other animals (primates especially) o Facial expressions o Dominance and submission o Aggressive males o Food sharing o Group living o Preference for our own kin o Wariness around snakes  Number of universals we share with other animals is quite small  Some theorists believe commonalities are due to our species’ high level of intelligence (i.e. we figure out for ourselves what thinks work and what things do not work) Group Living, Language and Theory of Mind  Group living contributed to survival  Strong evidence that infants are prewired to acquire language  Children learn to speak at similar developmental stages  At birth, all infants can produce phonemes  Findings indicate that there are inherited propensities to develop grammatical language  Theory of mind the understanding that other people have beliefs and desires (acquired via evolution)  Children with autism often have a genetic defect that impairs theory of mind  Given its importance, it seems biologically prewired Evolution and Gender Roles  Parental investment the evolutionary principle that costs and benefits are associated with reproduction and the nurturing of offspring. Because the costs and benefits are different for males and females, one sex will normally value and invest more in each child than will the other sex  Women values each child more because the number of children she can have is limited  Men can have unlimited numbers of offspring, and it is quick and easy for them to reproduce, so they are less invested in their children  Evolution can explain seemingly universal tendencies related to sex, gender, and child rearing Avoiding the Naturalistic Fallacy  Evolutionary theory can be seen as controversial  Used to justify false beliefs (i.e. sexism, racism)  Lead people to assume that biology is destiny, even though it is not  Naturalistic fallacy the claim that the way things are is the way that they should be  Even though a theory can be misused is no reason to reject it  Evolutionary theory should not be completely rejected  Legacy of evolution is that it allows for adaptation of characteristics in distinct circumstances Social Neuroscience  Evolutionary theory has alerted us to the fact that the basis of behavior is largely biological  Neuroscientists have identified the functions of certain brain regions, and how changes in these regions affects social behaviors  Informs us that the brain, mind and behavior are all connected, and that social factors influence each of these components at the same time  Ex. Prefrontal cortex (important for learning) decays over time, which is why it is harder for elderly people to learn new things CULTURE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR: HOW WE ARE DIFFERENT  Flexibility in humans’ expressions of emotional tendencies  Most successful of mammals to live in different kinds of ecosystems  Different cultures has resulted in differences between groups Cultural Differences in Social Relations and Self-Understanding  Cultural differences go deeper than beliefs and values  Extend to the level of fundamental forms of self-conceptions and social existence and even to the perceptual and cognitive processes people use to develop new thoughts and beliefs  Independent (individualistic) cultures cultures in which people tend to think of themselves as distinct social entities, tied to each other by voluntary bonds of affection and organizational memberships but essentially separate from other people and having attributes that exist in the absence of any connection to others (Western countries)  Interdependent (collectivist) cultures cultures in which people tend to define themselves as part of a collective, inextricably tied to others in their group and placing less importance on individual freedom or personal control over their lives (Eastern countries)  Differences in self-definition have important implications for the nature of their personal goals and strivings, values and beliefs  Independent cultures value uniqueness, and do not see success as relying on relationships, rather they encourage cutting off ties in order to strive for personal gains  Interdependent cultures encourage group success more than individual success, people prefer to stick to the norm rather than standing out Who Are You?  Who Am I tests were given to American undergraduates, Kenyan undergraduates, Worker in Nairobi, Masai tribespeople and Sambura tribespeople  Kenyan students are educated in a Western tradition  Americans answered with descriptions referring to personality traits, whereas Easterners answered with characteristics referring to groups they belonged to, or traits specific to certain circumstances  Western orientation is essential to an independent conception of the self Individualism versus Collectivism in the Workplace  Geert Hofstede examined the dimension of independence and interdependence by surveying workers at different IBM locations  Managers from East Asia, South Asia and Latin America tended to hold collectivist values  Managers from British and former British colonies valued individualism  Managers from continental European nations valued a mix of individualism and collectivism Culture and Gender Roles  Gender roles vary across cultures  In hunter-gatherer societies and Modern Western countries there is gender egalitarianism  Relative status of women in the world varies  Sexual mores (norms) also vary  Polygyny and monogamy are the most common  Social scientists disagree on whether these differences are arbitrary or serve an economic/political purpose  Polyandry is used to preserve inherited land, and to produce one heir for an entire family  Primogeniture (where only the firstborn child inherits land) also serves an economic purpose of conserving land  Gender is constructed differently in various societies Some Qualifications  Not possible to put an entire society in one box or another  Regional and subcultural differences  Southern states value more family connections and interdependence more than Northern states  Socialization within a society may be oriented more toward independence or interdependence  Social class differences  Working-class is more interdependent than middle-class  Class differences are broad and deep enough that it is reasonable to regard them as a cultural difference  Same person can be value independence or interdependence depending on the situation Culture and Evolution as Tools for Understanding Situations  Culture and evolution are complementary ways of understanding social relations  Evolution has allowed us to develop a capacity for a wide range of behaviors, but whichever society we are in decides which ones develop Chapter 2: The Methods of Social Psychology WHY DO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGISTS DO RESEARCH (AND WHY SHOULD YOU WANT TO READ ABOUT IT?)  World may seem like a reasonably predictable place  Many situations contain surprises  Factors that influence our behavior are often hidden in our unconscious  Hindsight bias people’s tendency to be overconfident about whether they could have predicted a given outcome  Things are often obvious only in hindsight, not in foresight HOW DO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGISTS TEST IDEAS?  Wide variety of methods to test hypotheses  Even thinking about how you would test a hypothesis can lead to new conclusions  Hypothesis a prediction about what will happen under particular circumstances  Theory a body of related propositions intended to describe some aspect of the world Observational Research  Research can be simply a matter of observing and systematically taking notes  Participant observation involves observing some phenomenon at close range  Social psychologists often observe social situations in semi-formal ways  Taking notes and interviewing participants  Tentative conclusions  Must be tested with other methods Archival Research  Researchers examine archives  Record books  Police reports  Sports statistics  Newspaper articles  Databases containing ethnographic descriptions of people in different cultures  Ex. Nisbett et al completed a study on North vs. South murders by examining police archives which led them to further studies Surveys  Common way to collect information is by asking people questions via interviews or questionnaires  Random sample is obtained if everyone in the population (the group you are interested in as a whole) has an equal chance of being chosen for the survey  Convenience sample may be biased because you pick people based on who is available (i.e. the first 20 people that walk into the building)  Number of people required to get an accurate count is independent of population size  1,200 American adults is enough to get a 95% confidence rating with a 3% margin of error for the American population  Cohen and Nisbett used surveys to gain historical information about people from the North and from the South that further guided their research Correlational Research  Correlational research research that does not involve random assignment to different situations, or condition, and that psychologists conduct just to see whether there is a relationship between the variables  Experimental research in social psychology, research that randomly assigns people to different conditions, or situations, and that enables researchers to make strong inferences about how these different conditions affect people’s behavior  Looking for correlations is an important beginning point  Directionality problems  Reverse causation when variable 1 is assumed to cause variable 2, yet opposite direction of causation may be the case  Third variable when variable 1 does not cause variable 2, but some other variable exerts a causal influence on both  Self-selection a problem that arises when the participant, rather than the investigator, selects his or her level on each variable, bringing with this value unknown properties that make causal interpretation of a relationship difficult (i.e. the participants happened to be married or not-married, there was no selection process to get rid off unknown variables that are caused because of a marriage)  Correlational researchers can only look at the degree of relationship between two or more variables (ranging from 0 to 1)  0.2 – slight relationship, 0.4 – moderately strong relationship, 0.6-1, very strong relationship  Helpful in alerting investigators to various possibilities for valid causal hypotheses about the nature of the world  Researchers use correlational studies when intervening would be difficult or unethical  Clever analysis of correlational data can be persuasive about the meaning of a relationship  Ex. “people who watch the local news, see more danger in the world than people who do not”  this statement allows researchers to come to various possible conclusions, and as hypotheses are tested and ruled out, the relationship between the variables may become clearer  Longitudinal study a study conducted over a long period of time with the same population, which is periodically assessed regarding a particular behavior  such studies rule out reverse causation (nothing that happened when you were 30 affected what you did when you were younger) Experimental Research  Best way to be sure of causality  Independent variable - manipulated  Dependent variable - measured  Random assignment assigning participants in experimental research to different groups randomly, such that they are as likely to be assigned to one condition as to another  Control condition a condition comparable to the experimental condition in every way except that it lacks the one ingredient hypothesized to produce the expected effect on the dependent variable  Ex. Cohen Nisbett experiment where Northerners and Southerners were randomly assigned to be insulted or not while walking down a hallway, and then had testosterone levels measured, facial expressions analyzed, distance before dodging out of someone else’s way, and ending to a story analyzed o Not completely an experimental study because not both independent variables were randomly assigned (i.e. you are either from the North or the South)  Usually experimental studies can dictate a causal relationship  Natural experiments naturally occurring events or phenomena having somewhat different conditions that can be compared with almost as much rigor as in experiments where the investigator manipulates the conditions o I.e. Study of people’s happiness before and after marriage concluded that people were happier after marriage, and that it was because of the marriage, not because they were happier before o I.e. Examining the effect of television on communities with televisions and communities without televisions is a natural experiment because it is not determined by self-selection SOME OTHER USEFUL CONCEPTS FOR UNDERSTANDING RESEARCH  What sets apart a well-designed study from one with flaws  Random assignment and control group can eliminate potential problems  When designing a study, one must consider validity, reliability, and statistical significance External Validity in Experiments  Experiments can be so removed from everyday life that it can be hard to know how to interpret them  External validity an experimental setup that closely resembles real-life situations so that results can be safely generalized to such situations  When the purpose of the research is to generalize the results of an experiment directly to the real-world, external validity is important  Milgram’s experiment lacks external validity, however, events where people have had to obey an authority’s demand to hurt others have happened, and will happen again, so external validity is not as important in this case  Zajonc experiment that involved Turkish words being repeated into the headset of an American subject to determine if the repetition had an affect on the likeability of the words o External validity is not essential o Purpose was to clarify a general idea or theory o Simplicity of the situation o Purpose was to examine if it was the sheer number of words that affected their attractiveness, and not something else about the stimuli  Field experiment an experiment set-up in the real world, usually with participants who are not aware that they are in a study of any kind o Identical to experiments that take place in a laboratory (conceptually) but take place in the real world to ensure external validity o Ex. Assessing potential employers reactions to the letter where the employee acknowledges that he was a felon Internal Validity in Experiments  Internal validity is essential no matter what the goal of an experiment is  Internal validity in experimental research, confidence that only the manipulated variable could have produced the results  To rule out possibility that participants differ in some way, experimenters rely on random assignment  Requires that the experimental setup seem realistic and plausible to participants  Debriefing in preliminary versions of an experiment, asking participants straightforwardly if they understood the instructions, found the setup to be reasonable, and so forth. In later versions, debriefings are used to educate participants about the questions being studied. Reliability and Validity of Tests and Measures  Reliability the degree to which the particular way that researchers measure a given variable is likely to yield consistent results  Reliability is typically measured by correlations between 0 and 1  Ability tests should have correlations of about 0.8  Personality tests have lower levels of correlations  Measurement validity the correlation between some measure and some outcome that the measure is supposed to predict  Validity coefficients are around 0.5 – 0.3  Ex. IQ test validity is measured by correlating IQ scores with grades in school and with performance in jobs. If IQ scores predict behavior that requires intelligence, it can be inferred that the test is a valid measure of intelligence. Statistical Significance  Statistical significance a measure of the probability that a given result could have occurred by chance  Standard measure is 0.05  Statistical significance is due to the size of the difference between groups in an experiment or the size of a relationship between variables, and the number of cases the finding is based on  The larger the difference or relationship, and the larger the number of cases, the greater the statistical significance BASIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH  Basic science science concerned with trying to understand some phenomenon in its own right, with a view toward using that understanding to build valid theories about the nature of some aspect of the world o Ex. Social psychologists who study the nature of obedience under an authority figure are studying the nature of obedience and the factors that influence it, they are not trying to make people more or less susceptible to authority  Applied science science concerned with solving some real-world problem of importance o Ex. How to make preteens less susceptible to cigarette advertising, or how to convince people to use condoms  Two way relationship between basic and applied science  Intervention an effort to change people’s behavior  Basic research can give rise to theories that lead to interventions  Ex. Carol Dweck’s basic research that showed how studying harder leads to greater intelligence led her to design an intervention with high school students  Applied research can also result in basic science  Ex. Applied research during WWII about propaganda led to an extensive program on the nature of attitude change ETHICAL CONCERNS IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY  Institutional Review Board (IRB) a university committee (one scientist, one non-scientist and one person not affiliated with the institution) that examines research proposals and makes judgments about the ethical appropriateness of the research  Research may be allowed even if it causes participants some discomfort, so long as the IRB sees it to yield significant information and the discomfort or harm is not too great  Milgram’s experiment is debatably not safe  Medical research is also governed by IRBs  Informed consent participants’ willingness to participate in a procedure or research study after learning all relevant aspects about the procedure or study  Deception research research in which the participants are misled about the purpose of research or the meaning of something that is done to them  Informed consent is not necessary for deception research, but detailed debriefing is important for the safety of participants Chapter 4  Chapter discusses social cognition – and sources of error in judgment about the social world in 5 sections 1. Judgments are only as effective as the quality of information on which they are based 2. How information is framed can affect the judgments we make 3. Actively seek out information and a bias in our information-seeking strategies distorts conclusions we make 4. Pre-existing knowledge influences the construal of new information 5. Intuition and reason underlie social cognition, their interaction determines judgments we make WHY STUDY SOCIAL COGNITION?  Social cognition is the study of how people think about the social world and arrive at judgments that help them interpret the past, understand the present, and predict the future  Social stimuli influence people’s behavior indirectly  Studying mistakes in peoples’ judgments exploits the limitations of them  Researchers explore the limitations of everyday judgment The Information Available For Social Cognition  Social cognition depends primarily on information  Information can be non-existent, misleading, or presented in a certain way  These circumstances present challenges to achieving an accurate understanding of others Minimal Information: Inferring Personality from Physical Appearance  Having little information does not stop us from making judgments  Form impressions of strangers based on quick glances  Willis and Todorov experiment showed people faces and asked them to identify the emotion, some people had a long time, others had very little time  Concluded that the judgments we make based on people’s faces are made instantaneously  Made the following observations: o Perceiving Trust and Dominance  Participants ranked a large number of photographs portraying different emotions  Two dimensions tend to stand out  (1) positive-negative dimension, whether someone is seen as trustworthy or untrustworthy, aggressive or not aggressive and (2) assessments about the person’s power  People are set to make highly functional judgments about whether people should be approached or avoided, and where they are likely to stand in a status/power hierarchy  Trustworthy non-dominant faces resemble baby faces  Automatic nature of our response to infantile features makes it likely that we would overgeneralize and see adults with those features as trustworthy and submissive  Assessments have implications  baby-faced individuals are more favorably treated, and seen as inappropriate for “adult” jobs like banking o The Accuracy of Snap Judgments  How accurate snap judgments are awaits an answer  Some investigators report a strong correlation  Similar studies found no connection between facial appearance and the individual’s actual disposition  People’s snap judgments about facial appearance may hold a kernel of truth, but a very small kernel  In cases where it is more important to predict what other people in general think, snap judgments tend to report the consensus Misleading Firsthand Information: Pluralistic Ignorance  Some information comes to us firsthand, others are filtered before they come to us  Information collected firsthand is not filtered by someone else  Still contains bias  Inattention to information and misconstruing information  Our own experiences can be unrepresentative  People’s behavior sometimes springs from a desire to create an impression that is not a true reflection of their beliefs or traits  Pluralistic ignorance misperception of a group norm that results from observing people who are acting at variance with their private beliefs out of a concern for the social consequences – actions that reinforce the erroneous group norm o Ex. In class when the professor asks “Does everyone understand?”, no one raises their hand to ask a question because they assume that everyone else understand, when really there are many people with questions  Pluralistic ignorance is more common in situations were “toughness” is valued (gangs)  Shelton and Richeson predicted that individuals from different ethnic groups might not initiate conversation with people from different groups out of fear of being rejected  When asked after the introduction of one group to another, people attributed their own avoidance to fear of rejection, but assumed that the other groups did not approach them due to lack of interest - neither make the effort to be friends Misleading Secondhand Information  Many of our judgments are based on secondhand information  Analysis of how accurate this information is likely to be is key for social cognition psychologists  What variables influence its accuracy?  What factors reduce the reliability of the information, and when do these factors come into play? Ideological Distortions  Transmitters of information often have an ideological agenda  Causes them to accentuate certain parts of a story and suppress other parts  Distortions can be innocent (person relaying the message believes in it but chooses to omit certain details that might detract from its impact) or purposeful (i.e. advertisements during elections) Distortions in the Service of Entertainment: Overemphasis on Bad News  Desire to entertain causes people to distort information  Small scale  people exaggerate stories to their friends to make them seem more interesting  Large scale  mass media distorts information to sell it, they over report bad news, and TV and movies portray violent drama Effects of the Bad-News Bias  Exposure to distorted view of reality can lead people to believe they are at a higher risk of victimization  Research found positive correlation between the amount of TV watched and the fear of victimization  Interpreting these results is difficult  When more variables are taken into account, the conclusion is that violence on TV can make the real world appear to be a dangerous place, especially when the televised images are similar to certain aspect of a person’s environment (i.e. if the person is living in a dangerous area) Differential Attention to Positive and Negative Information  Audiences are more receptive to bad information  Positive and negative information (even if presented equally) have asymmetrical effects  Pervasive human tendency to be more attentive towards negative information because it has implications for our survival  People may be more vigilant for potential threats than for potential benefits (i.e. finding food or escaping predator) HOW INFORMATION IS PRESENTED  Impact of how information is presented is illustrated through marketing and advertising  Social psychologists confirm that slight variations in the presentation of information (how and when it is presented) can affect people’s judgments Order Effects  Primacy effect the disproportionate influence on judgment by information presented first in a body of evidence  Recency effect the disproportionate influence on judgment by information presented last in a body of evidence  Pervasive to every day life  Asch experiment asked people to evaluate an individual described in a list of terms, they often described the person with the first and last words from the list  Primacy effects  tendency to pay attention to stimuli presented early on and lose focus later on  Recency effects  last items are easiest to recall because they are in short- term memory  Initial information also affects how later information is construed o When stubborn is placed between two positive traits (i.e. intelligent and ambitious) people are likely to interpret it positively, but if it is placed between negative words (i.e. selfish and envious) they are likely to interpret it differently Framing Effects  Framing effect the influence on judgment resulting from the way information is presented, such as the order of presentation or how it is worded  Order effect is “pure” framing, because the content is the same it’s just the frame of reference that has changed Spin Framing  Spin framing varies content o Ex. Company with a competitive edge in quality will frame the issue as one relating to quality  Participants in debates highlight some information  Politicians select specific words in opinion polls which drastically changes the outcome (i.e. death tax vs. inheritance tax)  Important to know who sponsored a poll, and the exact wording of questions Positive and Negative Framing  Mixed nature (good and bad) of things means that they can be purely framed in ways that emphasize either positive or negative aspects  Negative information attracts more attention and is likely to illicit a stronger response o Ten people dying sounds worse than 90 out of 100 living o Implications for people who are considered “experts”  doctors had different response when the question was framed as patients surviving vs. patients dying  Loss aversion (people hate losing more than they like gaining) causes people to strongly react to negative features Temporal Framing  Construal level theory a theory that outlines the relationship between psychological distance and the concreteness versus abstraction of thought. Psychologically distant actions and events are thought about in abstract terms; actions and events are thought about in abstract terms; actions and events that are close at hand are thought about in concrete terms  Explains inconsistent preferences  Sometimes the abstract level can be less desirable than the concrete (i.e. agree to stick to a diet until you are in front of the buffet and want a piece of cake)  Vise versa – things that sound incredible in the abstract are less thrilling at the concrete level (i.e. heavy course load sounds like a good plan, but when you are failing all your classes it doesn’t seem like a good idea anymore)  Influence of near and far events can be applied to things close and far in space, or close and far socially (things that affect you or a distant relative) HOW WE SEEK INFORMATION Confirmation Bias  People more readily, reliably and vigorously seek out evidence that supports a preexisting proposition  Confirmation bias the tendency to test a proposition by searching for evidence that would support it  Tennis players were asked to determine whether working out the day before a match increased their chances of winning/losing  Instead of examin
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 215

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.