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PSYC 215 (296)
John Lydon (79)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 The Methods of Social Psychology.docx

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PSYC 215
John Lydon

Chapter 2 The Methods of Social Psychology Social Psychology  Hindsight bias: people’s tendency to be overconfident about whether they could have predicted a given outcome; we feel more confident once we know the results of a study  Hypotheses: predictions about what will happen in given circumstances; test circumstances within a theory  Theory: a body of related propositions intended to describe some aspect of the world  Studies with participant observation involve observing something from a close range, often becoming involved in it yourself  Researchers can study patterns of behavior in the past using archives o i.e. it was discovered that more homicides in the South were insult-related  Surveys are the most common type of study because they involve using a random sample, when everyone in a population has an equal chance of being selected  Convenience samples, or choosing a group base on their convenience is not random and can be biased  Cohen and Nisbett found Southerners had conflicting views on violence, but generally thought violence in response to insult or in defense was justified- may be due to a “culture of honor” in the South”  Correlational research: determining whether a relationship exists between two or more variables  Experimental research: enables researchers to make inferences about how different conditions or situations affect people’s behavior  In correlational research, causality is never assured; there could be a third variable or reverse causation, when the opposite of what is expected is true  Correlational research cannot prove a causal relationship because of self- selection, when the participant, rather than the researcher, selects his or her own level on each variable being tested, therefore affecting the relationship between variables  Relationship between variables are on a scale
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