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Chapter 11

PSYC 215 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Minimal Group Paradigm, Stereotype Threat, Mahzarin Banaji

Course Code
PSYC 215
John Lydon

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Chapter 11
Characterizing intergroup bias
*Stereotypes: beliefs that certain attributes are characteristic of members of particular groups.
-way of categorizing people.
-involves thinking about a person not as an individual but as a member of a group, and
projecting what you know about the group onto your expectations about the individual.
Ex. American house, a German car, French food, British police, an Italian lover, and
everything run by the Swiss. stereotypes can be positive or negative, true or false.
*Prejudice: a negative attitude or affective response toward a certain group and its individual
-involves prejudging others because they belong to a specific category.
*Discrimination: unfair treatment of members of a particular group based on their
membership in that group.
-involves unfair treatment of others treatment based not on their character or abilities but on
their membership in a group.
-stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination refer to the belief, attitudinal, and behavioral
components of negative intergroup relations
-components of intergroup bias need not all occur together.
Ex.1. A person can discriminate without prejudice (Jewish parents say they dont want their
children to marry outside the faith, not because they have a low opinion of other groups, but
because they are concerned about future of Judaism.)
Ex.2. A person can be prejudiced and not discriminate (culture frowns on discrimination.
Civil rights laws in the U.S. are specifically desined to uncouple prejudiced attitudes and
discriminatory actions.)
Modern Racism
-theoretical shift:
-Modern Racism: prejudice directed at other racial groups that exists alongside rejection of
explicitly racist beliefs (genetic differences between racial groups in intelligence)
Ex. 1. participants were in a position to aid a white or black individual in need of medical

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if they thought they were the only one who could help, they came to the aid of the black
when they thought that other people were present and their inaction could be justified on
nonracial grounds, they helped the black victim much less.
-in this situation, the prejudice or discrimination is masked and the individual remains
comfortably unaware of being racist.
Ex. 2. White participants evaluated black and white applicants to college. When the
applicants excelled on certain dimensions and were below average on others, the ratings of
prejudiced and unprejudiced participants diverged
prejudiced participants rated the black applicants less favorably than did the unprejudiced
prejudiced participants‟ discriminatory responses could be defended as nondiscriminatory
by claiming that the dimensions on which the black applicants fell short were more important
than those on which they excelled.
-however, when the desire to appear unprejudiced is sufficiently strong, the opposite result is
sometimes observed.
Benevolent Racism and Sexism
-many of our ism (racism, sexism, ageism) are ambivalent. Contains both negative and
positive features.
-someone might believe that women are less competent and intelligent than men, and at the
same time believe women are warmer and have better social skills.
Ex. Benevolent sexism (ideology that offers protection and affection to women who embrace
conventional roles) often coexists with hostile sexism(dislike of women who are viewed as
usurping mens power).
Those who hold ambivalent attitudes tend to act positively toward members of outgroups
only if they fulfill their idealized image of what such people should be like. Those who
deviate tend to be treated with hostility.
Measuring attitudes about groups
-so many forms of prejudice are ambivalent, uncertain, or hidden, even from the self, they are
not likely to be revealed through self-report.
-psychologists have developed some widely used indirect measures
1. The Implicit Association Test (Anthony greenwald and Mazarin Banaji)
-It is a technique for revealing nonconscious prejudices toward particular groups

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-a series of words are presented on a computer screen, and the respondent is told to press key
with left finger if it is either a female name or a weak word, and press with right finger if it is
either a male name or a strong word
-same process but in this case participants are first asked to press one key for both positive
words and either photos or the names of people. (faster to press the appropriate key when the
same key is used for old faces and negative words, and slower when the same key is used for
old faces and positive words.) nonconscious prejudice toward old people was captured by
the difference between the average time it takes to respond to old faes/positive words and the
average time it takes to respond to old faces/negative words
2. Priming and Implicit Prejudice
-Priming: a procedure used to increase the accessibility of a concept or schema ( for example,
a stereotype)/
-show you the word butter and ask you to tell me as quickly as you can the word you
recognize which is bread
-priming have shown that people often have subtle prejudices against various target groups
that they would steadfastly deny having.
The Economic Perspective
-groups develop prejudices about one another and discriminate against one another when they
compete for material resources.
-ex. Immigrants from Mexico and central America face harshest discrimination from U.S.
citizens who see them as treats to their own jobs.
Realistic group conflict theory
-Realistic group conflict theory: a theory that group conflict, prejudice, and discrimination are
likely to arise over competition between groups for limited resources
Ex. People in the working class in the U.S. exhibited the most anti-black prejudice in the
wake of the civil rights movement. Working class jobs were most at risk once millions of
black Americans were allowed to compete more freely for entry-level manufacturing jobs in
-Ethnocentrism: glorifying one‟s own group while vilifying other groups.
Ex. 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center, different racial groups in the U.S. seemed to pull
together more than they had beforehand. Telling white students that the attacks were directed
at all Americans, regardless of race and class, served to reduce prejudice toward African-
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