Explanations for why aggression occurs vary according to whether it is hostile or
1. Hostile Aggression: behavior intended to harm another, either physically or
psychologically, and motivated by feelings of anger and hostility.
Ex. Genocide in Rwanda: Hutus seeking revenge on Tutsis out of anger about past
2. Instrumental Aggression: behavior intended to harm another in the service of motives
other than pure hostility (ex. To attract attention, to acquire wealth, or to advance
political and ideological causes).
Ex. Genocide in Rwanda was committed in the pursuit of political purposes: the
Hutus were seeking to displace the more powerful Tutsis.
-many acts of aggression involve a mix of hostile and instrumental motives. Ex. A football
player who intentionally harm