BOOK NOTES- Social Psychology.docx

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Published on 22 Apr 2013
School
McGill University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 215
2Social Psychology- BOOK NOTES
Chapter 1
Social Psychology: the scientific study of how people affect and are affected by others
It can help you make sense of your own social world
One of the first social psychology experiments: Norman Triplett
The presence of another bicycle rider releases the competitive
instinct which increases nervous energy and thereby enhances performance
Build a “competition machine” children winded up a fishing reel
and they found that children working side by side others enhanced performance
compared to working alone
Max Ringelmann
He had men pull on a rope alone and as part of a group and he
measured the amount of effort exerted by each participant
As group size increased amount of effort decreased
This study can explain why people tend to slack off when working
on group projects
These 2 studies show the complete opposite this is to show that social behavior is
complicated!
Psychology was divided into 2 camps
Behaviorism: sought to explain all of psychology in terms of
learning principles such as reward and punishment
Freudian psychoanalysis: interpretations of individual
experiences instead of systematic studies that counted behaviors.
Social psychology didn’t really fall into either. It was more congenial to the behaviorist
in that it favored experiments and the scientific method but it was sympathetic to the
Freudian camp with its interest in inner states and processes
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McDougall and Ross published the first social psychology textbook
ABC Triad: “A” stands for affect; how people feel inside, “B” stands for behavior; what
people do, their actions, “C” stands for Cognition; what people think about
When trying to explain some pattern of behavior the first place social psychologist
generally look is to the situation
Anthropology: the study of human culture, the shared values, beliefs, and practices of a
group of people
Economics: the study of the production, distribution and consumption of goods and
services and the study of money
History: the study of past events
Political Science: the study of political organizations and institutions, especially
governments
Sociology: the study of human societies and the group that form those societies
Social psychology and Psychology
Psychology: the study of human behavior
Social psychology is a branch of psychology
Biological psychology (physiological psychology, neuroscience): the study of what
happens in the brain, nervous system and other aspects of the body
Clinical psychology: branch of psychology that focuses on behavior disorders and other
forms of mental illness and how to treat them
Focuses on abnormalities while social psychology focuses on
normality’s
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Cognitive psychology: the study of thought processes such as how memory works and
what people notice
Social psychology has borrowed heavily from cognitive
psychology especially by using their methods for measuring cognitive processes
Developmental psychology: the study of how people change across their lives from
conception and birth to old age and death
Borrowed much from social psychology but not the other way
around
Personality psychology: the branch of psychology that focuses on important differences
between individuals
Long and close relationship with social psychology
Philosophy: “love of wisdom” the pursuit of knowledge about fundamental matters such
as life, death, meaning, reality, and truth
Applied Research: research that focuses on solving particular practical problems
Common sense provides a good starting point for social psychologists to do their work
The scientific method involves 5 basic steps
The researcher states a problem for study
The researcher formulates a testable hypothesis as a tentative
solution to the problem.
The researcher designs a study to test the hypothesis and collects
data. Anyone observing the data collection process should be able to replicate or
repeat it
A test is made of the hypothesis by confronting it with the data.
Statistical methods are used to test whether the data are consistent or inconsistent
with the hypothesis. No single study can prove anything beyond all doubt. There
is always the possibility that the data turned out a certain way as a fluke, by
random chance. Usually researchers test their hypothesis at the .05 significance
level. If the test is significant at their level it mean that researchers are 95%
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Document Summary

Social psychology: the scientific study of how people affect and are affected by others. It can help you make sense of your own social world. One of the first social psychology experiments: norman triplett instinct which increases nervous energy and thereby enhances performance. The presence of another bicycle rider releases the competitive. Build a competition machine children winded up a fishing reel and they found that children working side by side others enhanced performance compared to working alone. Max ringelmann measured the amount of effort exerted by each participant. He had men pull on a rope alone and as part of a group and he. As group size increased amount of effort decreased on group projects. This study can explain why people tend to slack off when working. These 2 studies show the complete opposite this is to show that social behavior is complicated! Psychology was divided into 2 camps learning principles such as reward and punishment.

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