Textbook Notes (362,820)
Canada (158,064)
Psychology (1,390)
PSYC 215 (296)
John Lydon (79)
Chapter 3

Social Psychology Chapter 3 Summary.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

McGill University
PSYC 215
John Lydon

Social Psychology Chapter 3 Summary The Nature of the Social Self - The self is a social entity - 3 parts of the self: the individual self, the relational self and the collective self - Individual self: persons’ beliefs about his/ her unique personality traits, abilities, preferences etc. focusses on what sets person apart from others - Relational self: sense of oneself in specific relationships; husband or wife etc. - Collective self: person’s identity as a member of the groups they belong to like Irish- Canadian, gay urban male etc. The Origins of Self-Knowledge - Everyone from Athenians to Buddhists wonder about the self Family and Other Socialization Agents - How we socialize our kids for ex: children must share and say thank you etc. - This shapes our sense of self by encouraging certain behaviours and providing opportunities for certain activities, socialization agents can influence traits, abilities and preferences that we come to associate w/ ourselves - For ex: if you’re taken to Sunday school and indoctrinated as a Catholic; it’s not surprise that you become one - Reflected self-appraisals: beliefs about what others think of our social selves - Reactions and appraisals communicate to us if who we are: funny, neurotic, have potential etc. - This is how we THINK people see us, not how they actually think - Their impact isn’t necessarily that direct; it is indirect through our own perception - Medial prefrontal cortex is heightened during self-referential cognition (when people are asked to think about who they are) - Adolescents exhibit greater activity relative to adults in neural systems relevant to both self- perception and perspective taking; adolescents relied on reflected appraisals more meaning they define self through other’s views of them Situationism and the Social Self - Our social-self changes across different contexts Aspects of the self that is relevant in the social context - Working self-concept: subset of self-knowledge brought to mind in a particular context - We are different around our peers vs. our parents and in different contexts Aspects of the self that is distinctive in social context - What makes you different from everyone else can also be what defines you - For ex: if you’re a Guyanese in Canada, that distinction is part of your self-definition Both Malleable and Stable - We have the idea of having a stable, core self while shifting depending on social circumstance - Core components of self-knowledge are likely to be on top of the mind no matter what context - Person’s pool of self-knowledge remains relatively stable over time, providing a sense of self- continuity even as different pieces of self-knowledge come to the fore in different contexts - One’s sense of self shifts depending on context thus these shifts are predictable, stable patterns - Malleability of the self is stable - Malleable shifting from one context to another but at same time a person’s social self has core components that shifts from one context that persists across contexts Culture and the Social Self - Western countries emphasize personal success whereas Asian cultures emphasize group cooperation - Cultures promoting independent self-construal—self is autonomous entity distinct and separate from others; must assert uniqueness and independence; focus on internal behaviour== traits are stable across time and social context - Interdependent self-construal: self is connected to others; imperative is for person to find their place in community and focus is on influence of social context and situation on current behaviour. self is embedded in social relationships Culture and the Social Self in the Brain - Medial prefrontal cortex is active when describing self - Chinese participants: activation in medial prefrontal cortex occurred when making comparisons of others but for westerners there was a relative deactivation of medial prefrontal cortex - People with interdependent self-construals use same region to describe self and others Gender and the Social Self - American women construe themselves are more interdependent than men but men are more independent; the same is found in the Japanese - Women are more compassionate and better judges of personality and emotion - Men are more attuned to their own internal responses but women are more attuned to situational cues - Can come from socialization; from young we raise our girls differently, they play different sports and are portrayed differently - Evolutionarily: men are equipped physically and psychologically for hunting and aggressive encounters whereas women were more equipped for nurturing young Social Comparison - Social comparison theory: hypothesis that people compare themselves to others in order to obtain accurate assessment of their own opinions, abilities and internal states - We don’t compare ourselves to the likes of Einstein but from people approximately at your level of skill; more on the worse-off side b/c we like to feel good about ourselves - We are inclined to wish we can be better at some skill making engage in upward social comparison instead of downward ones - We routinely compare ourselves against certain people like our best friends to the point where it becomes automatic Narratives about the Social Self - We have a narrative of our life: where we grew up, important events, characters involved and we tell them to our parents or best friends - Cross cultural research shows Canadians were more likely to describe embarrassing scene from another’s point of view rather than their own vs. Asians who would do it as a 3 person account - Westerners experience things from inside out and easterners experience things from the outside in Organization of Self-Knowledge - Social self depends on ability to remember—to know who we are and other people are - Self-schemas: cognitive structure derived from past experience that rep. a person’s beliefs and feelings about the self in particular domains Self-Schemas - For ex: conscientiousness; we all have self-schema representing our beliefs and feeling about how conscientious we are based on situations where conscientiousness was relevant like studying for exams - Self-schema of one who is high in conscientiousness is likely to include more instances of past conscientious behaviour along w/ beliefs about what it means to be high in conscientiousness compared w/ self-schema for someone who isn’t part of her self-conception at all - Person w/ self-schema in a particular domain should process info in that domain more quickly and retrieve evidence consistent w/ self-schema more rapidly - Self-reference effect: tendency for info related to self to be more thoroughly processed and integrated w/ existing self-knowledge thereby making it more memorable Self-complexity Theory - Self-complexity: tendency to define self in terms of multiple domains that are relatively distinct from one another in context - High self-complexity means you define yourself in a number of domains, I’m a student, athlete, Rihanna fan etc. etc.) and these domains relatively don’t overlap in content - Any change in a domain doesn’t affect someone with high self-complexity as it does someone w/ low self-complexity Self-Esteem - California task force though they should elevate self-esteem to yield many benefits in society Trait and State Self-Esteem - Self-esteem: positive or negative overall evaluation that each person has of himself or herself - Trait self-esteem is persons’ enduring level of self-regard across time; it is fairly stable - People reporting low trait self-esteem report the same later and vice versa for high self-esteem - State self-esteem: dynamic and changeable self-evaluations experienced as momentary feeling about the self which rises and falls according to transient mood - People experiencing a temporary set-back will feel a dive in self-esteem temporarily Contingencies of Self-Worth - Contingencies of self-worth: an account of self-esteem that maintains that self-esteem is contingent on successes & failures in domains on which a person has based his or her self-worth - For ex: my self-esteem gets a boost when I get a good grade = self-esteem is contingent on school success - It’s costly to pursue self-esteem in any domain b/c it makes you controlled by that domain; your mood is contingent upon your success or failure in that domain - Replace self-esteem goals w/ alternative goals including others o
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 215

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.