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Social Psychology Study GUide-- book.docx

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PSYC 215
John Lydon

Social PsychologyChapter 1Social Psychology scientific study of the feelings thoughts and behaviours in social situationsGive us partial answers or sometimes no answers it is not that we put bad apples in a good barrel we put good apples in a bad barrel and the barrel corrupts anything that it touches How people make sense of their world and how they act in certain situationsjudgment decision making social influence and how people function in groups relevant to previously stated commentssocial psychology is rarely upheld in governmental situations The power of the situationArendt 1963Eichmann in Jerusalemo Architect of hitlers plan o Not sadistic and twisted however normalArendt focused on the question are we all capable of performing acts of brutality and believed that indeed we are the banality of evil o Main social psychology aspecthow does the situation that people find themselves in affects their behaviourOther people more often than not influence our behaviourCase Studies The milgram experimentthe effect of punishment on learning o unfamiliar situations caused them to do something that would usually fill them with horror Seminarians as Samaritansbasis of religion personal salvation or moral and spiritual valuesthe mundane fact of being in a hurry is such a powerful situation factor that it overrides peoples helpful tendenciesthus people are governed by situational factorsas well as internal factors ie Who the person is how their environment has shaped them into who they are however external factors take the most precedence over the internal factors o internal factors dispositionsDispositions beliefs values personality traits abilities whether real or imaginableThe fundamental attribution error the failure to recognize the importance of situational influences on behaviour together with the tendency to overemphasize the importance of dispositions or traitsbefore assuming a person has dispositions relating to the situation one must observe and take into account the situation and environment channel factors kurt lewin certain situational circumstances that appear unimportant on the surface but can have great consequences for behaviour either facilitating or blocking it or guiding behaviour in a particular direction ex channel factor was to shape a vague intention into a concrete planconstrualmilgrams experiment was a manipulation he manipulated the participants understanding of the situation of a study participant who had chosen to be in the experiment was learning a list of words with feedback o our construal of situations and behaviour refers to our interpretation of them and to the inferences often unconscious that we make about them our perceptions drive our behaviour towards a person Gestalt Psychology Formfigure People perceive objects not by means of some automatic registering device but by active usually unconscious interpretation of what the object represents as a wholePrisoners dilemmaeither cooperate or defect o cooperate pays off and better than mistrust and defectionthe type of situation and how it is portrayed also affects whether or not the person will defect or cooperatewall street vs communitySchema generalized knowledge about the physical and social world such as what kind of behaviour to expect when engaging in a certain activity and when at a certain place speaking to a certain personthere is a universal schema for falling in love a knowledge structure consisting of any organized body of stored informationStereotypes are schemas about people of a certain kind o Misapplication and application of schemaUse particular person schemas to make judgmentsNatural Selection Survival of the fittesta stronger person is more likely to survive and reproduce than a less fitstrong one thus the strength prevails and increases population that is weaker causing the stronger persons genes to prevail o negative characteristics are selected against characteristics better adapted to the environment are selected forAutomaticcontrolled processingautomatic processing is based off of emotions and is unconsciousimplicitcontrolled processing is based off of systematic and conscious decisionsTypes of unconscious processingskill acquisition driving a cardo them without conscious thought and processingbelief and behaviours generated without our awareness 12bhwe know this is how to get the area of an equilateral trianglecan operate in parallelit is important to distinguish between the social behaviours that are effortfuldeliberate and consciously processed and between the effortlessautomatic and unconsciously processed behavioursLanguage facilitates the ability to live with othersinheritedgeneral properties to develop grammatical languageTheory of the Mind the ability to recognize that other people have believes and desiresex autistic children lack the theory of the mind Theory of the parental investment costs and benefits are associated with reproduction and the nurturing of an offspring women tend to have and invest more in each child than the opposite sexNaturalistic fallacy the way things are the way they should beIndependent individualistic cultures cultures in which people tend to think of themselves as distinct social entities tied to each other by voluntary bond of affection and organizational memberships but essentially separate from other people and having attributes that exist in the absence of any connection to others terminable when they pleaseInterdependent collectivistic cultures cultures in which people tend to define themselves as part of a collective inextricably tied to others in their group and placing less importance on individual freedom or personal control over the restEx The predominant male role to hunt and the predominant female role is to gather plantsmen vs womenEvolutionfoundationgives us all the capacity for an astonishingly wide range of behaviours but whether a society develops a particular prewired opinion or not may depend on how adaptive the behaviour is for the circumstances they confront the people in itnature proposesculture disposesHindsight bias peoples tendency to be overconfident about whether they could have predicted a given outcome
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