Textbook Notes (367,753)
Canada (161,369)
Psychology (1,410)
PSYC 215 (296)
John Lydon (79)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - Research

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PSYC 215
John Lydon

Chapter 2 Why do we research? - Anticipate and avoid social psychological pitfalls - Understand why we behave as we do - Avoid hindsight bias when you predict an outcome o Tendency to be overconfident about whether you could have predicted a given outcome o E.g. Things may seem obvious in a textbook Types of Research Observational research - Looking at a phenomenon o Participant observation: observe at a close range - Semiformal - Often misleading Archival research - Evidence found in archives o Books, newspaper articles, sports statistics, databases, etc. Surveys - Asking questions o Interviews or questionnaires - Requires sampling o Random o Everyone has an equal chance of being chosen o Must not be convenience sampling (contacting people as they enter/leave a place, emailing sorority members, etc.) as it can be biased Correlational research - Determine whether a relationship exists between variables - Important to look for: o Reverse causation:  when one variable is assumed to cause the other variable, and vice versa  However, it is impossible in Longitudinal Study:  A study conducted over a period of time with the same population  Nothing that happens when a person is 30 can affect what he did when he was younger o Third variable:  a variable that exerts a causal influence on two variables - Must take into consideration self-selection: o Participants select their level on each variable, they select themselves into a group o E.g. A study proposes the idea that love and sex are good for physical and mental health.  Yet there are a number of differences between those who have “love and sex”  The investigators do not decide whether a person is married or not  The investigators do not know about the details of people’s lives (happy, gloomy, etc,)  Therefore, when choosing their level on each variable, the participants bring along other properties that make causal interpretation of a relationship difficult - All in all, investigators can only look at the degree of relationship between two or more variables. - Useful type of research when the study may seem difficult of unethical Experimental research: - Research that makes strong inferences about how different situations or conditions affect people’s behaviour - Random assignment of people to different situations - Requires an IV and a DV o DV measured by verbal reports, behaviour, physiological measures or neural measures - Needs a control condition - Natural experiments can be taken of o Naturally occurring events that have somewhat different conditions that can be compared with
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