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Chapter 7

PSYC 215 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Likert Scale, Cognitive Dissonance, Amygdala


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 215
Professor
Mark Baldwin
Chapter
7

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Chapter 7 Attitudes, Behavior, and
Rationalization
Attitude: evaluation of object along
positive/negative dimension.
Attitude involves emotion, this means how
much you like or dislike an object.
Cognitions: thoughts that reinforce a
persons feelings, knowledge and beliefs
about objects, memories and images.
Attitudes show us to reward objects we
should go for and show us things we
shouldn’t go for.
When certain attitudes are primed then
people are more likely to behave in a certain
way.
Neuro studies: Attitudes activate particular
brain regions that support specific actions.
Attitudes also involve cognitions, thoughts
that typically reinforce a person's feelings.
(529-530)
These include knowledge and beliefs about
the object, as well as associated memories
and images. (529-530)
Chapter 7
Tuesday, October 8, 2019
10:27 PM

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Attitudes alert us to rewarding objects we
should approach and to costly or punishing
objects we should avoid. (530-531)
When specific attitudes are primed or
brought to mind, even unconsciously people
are more likely to behave in ways consistent
with the attitude. (530-531)
Ex: When you see a young child crying or a
delicious ice cream, your mind prepares
your body for the action of caretaking or
consumption (530-531).
Attitudes are usually measured on a Likert
scale , This helps researchers to see how
participants feel about others in groups or
romantic partners (530-531).
The Likert scale is a list of possible answers
with anchors on each extreme such as a
scale of 1-10, 1 being did not like and 10
being I loved it (530-531).
When these scales are used for more serious
questions they might not be the best
measurement for how people really feel
(531-532).
Response latency, The way psychologists
record accessibility of the attitude, so
basically how fast a person responds to the
question asked. If someone responds
quickly then they have a strong response to
the question and a person who responds
slowly has a lesser relationship to the
question. (531-532).
A study was preformed with this question in
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A study was preformed with this question in
mind and was based on asking people
which presidential candidate they preferred
in the upcoming presidential election
(531-532).
What was shown by the study was that a
person who responded quickly were very
consistent with their attitude and the way
they voted compared to the response of
those who took longer to respond
(532-533).
To evaluate attitude centrality, researchers
will ask you about your attitude on a
specific topic is very important to you, it
should be consistent with your attitudes
about certain other issues (532-533).
The amygdala is central to our gut feelings.
Negative evaluations are stronger than
positive ones, makes sense evolutionarily.
Participants were presented with valenced
photos and negative valenced slides.
Brain activity was recorded on the scalp and
studied regions linked to evaluation
response stimuli.
They found that negative stimuli generated
higher brain activity than positive or
neutral.
Lapiere: wrote to establishments they went
to, 90% said they wouldn’t serve Orientals,
tis was proven not consistent.
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