PSYC 215 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Physical Attractiveness, Model Theory, Product Placement

20 views8 pages
2 Oct 2014
Department
Course
Chapter 8
James Jones created an interracial Church called the Wings of Deliverance, which
then changed to the People’s Temple
oWas ordained minister and moved the church to California (1965) to avoid
nuclear war and for more racial equality and gained 1000s of members and
millions of dollars
oCatharsis – public punishment for transgressions, vote by congregation for
innocence/guilt
oMoved to Guyanese jungle and made others live in suffering while he lived
like a god
oTested people by seeing if they would drink “suicide” for the “cause”
oPeople who left sought help from California Congressman Leo Ryan, who
went to Jonestown
oArmed guards killed Jones, 3 media reps and a resident while they tried to
help 16 residents escape
oJones made 914 people (276 children) commit “revolutionary suicide” by
drinking purple Kool-Aid laced with cyanide, sedatives, tranquilizers
Normative influence – going along with the crowd in order to be liked or accepted
oBeing accepted = higher chances of survival therefore we want to match
others
oProduces public compliance – outwardly going along with the group but
maintain a private, inner belief that the group is wrong
oAsch (1955) – asked participants to judge 3 lines matched to a comparison
line
Sometimes a confederate was asked to give the wrong answer and
people would follow even though they knew it was wrong to not
deviate from the group
Even if the error was immense, people still agreed
With more confederates, conformity increases as group size increases
up to a point where it then levels off
Confederate was “dissenter” who always gave the right answer
Reduced conformity by ¼ + increased feelings of
warmth/closeness to the dissenter
Did people feel this way because he was accurate or because he
deviated form the people
If the dissenter chose another answer but was wrong
Moderate errors decreased conformity by 1/3
Extreme errors decreased conformity by ¾
oDeviating from the group = major social rejection
oSchachter (1951) – groups of 8 individuals discussed the juvenile delinquent
Johnny Rocco
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
5 real participants, 3 confederates (1 = deviant = punish Rocco no
matter what, 1 = slider = initially punishing but would later change, 1
= mode = positive position like group members)
At the end of the discussion experimenter told people to vote someone
out  voted out deviant
Autokinetic effect – illusion, caused by very slight movements of the eye, that a
stationary point of light in a dark room is moving
Group norms – the beliefs or behaviours that a group of people accepts as normal
Sherif (1935) used autokinetic effect to study group norms by asking people to
estimate how far the light moved in a dark room – ranging from 1 to 8 inches but
when other participants were added to the trial, the individual answers converged t be
similar
Social norms can last for up to one year and can be transmitted from one person to
another
oConfederate gave inflated answer of how far the light traveled in presence of
real participant and the real participant then replaced the confederate and gave
the same answer  this continued for 5 generations
Informational influence – going along with the crowd because you think the crowd
knows more than you do
oAmbiguous situations where people do not know how to behave
oCrisis situations where people don’t know how to think for themselves
oConformation happens because they assume people know what’s best
oProduces private acceptance – a genuine inner belief that others are right
Pluralistic influence – looking to others for cues about how to behave, while they are
looking at you; collective misinterpretation
Private acceptance – a genuine inner belief that others are right
Public compliance – outwardly going along with the group but maintaining a private,
inner belief that the group is wrong
Social influence organized into 4 principles of techniques
oCommitment/consistency
People make a guarantee with their commitments  if not, cognitive
dissonance
Foot-in-the-door technique – influence technique based on
commitment, in which one starts with a small request in order to gain
eventual compliance with a larger request
Example – California homeowners asked to put small sign
saying “BE A SAFE DRIVER” in their cars  second step =
poorly made sign saying “DRIVE CAREFULLY”  most
people said yes (80%) if they originally said yes, but only 20%
if they said no
Low-ball technique – influence technique based on commitment, in
which one gets a person to comply with a seemingly low-cost request
and only later reveals hidden additional costs (car sales people)
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Bait-and-switch technique – influence technique based on
commitment, in which one draws people in with an attractive offer that
is unavailable and then switches them to a less attractive offer that is
available
Labeling technique – influence technique based on consistency, in
which one assigns a label to an individual and then requests a favour
that is consistent with the label
Legitimization-of-paltry-favours technique – influence technique in
which a requester makes a small amount of aid acceptable
oReciprocation
Door-in-the-face technique – influence technique based on
reciprocity, in which one starts with an inflated request and then
retreats to a smaller request that appears to be a concession (when
originally rejected)
That’s-not-all technique – influence technique based on reciprocity,
in which one first makes an inflated request but, before the person can
answer yes or no, sweetens the deal by offering a discount or bonus
oScarcity
Heuristic cue in decision making
i.e. children who get 2 cookies think they’re better than if they had 10
(even though the cookies taste exactly the same)
Takes more effort to obtain rare items than plentiful items
“hard to get”
People from individualistic cultures highly value their freedom 
scarce opportunities = loss of freedom
Limited-number technique – influence technique based on scarcity,
in which one tells people that an item is in short supply
Fast-approaching-deadline technique – influence technique based
on scarcity, in which one tells people an item or a price is only
available for a limited time
oCapturing/disrupting attention
Pique technique – influence technique in which one captures people’s
attention, as by making a novel request (asking for $0.17 vs “change”)
Disrupt-then-reframe technique – influence technique in which one
disrupts critical thinking by introducing an unexpected element, then
reframes the message in a positive light (pennies vs dollars)
Persuasion – an attempt to change a person’s attitudes
oCarl Hovland – studied persuasion of US soldiers’ morale during WWII
oThree things in persuasion
The speaker
The subject of the speech
The hearer to whom the speech is addressed
oThree elements necessary to persuade an audience
Emotional appeal (pathos)
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
Monthly
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.