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Chapter 2

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McGill University
PSYC 311
Jason Scott Ferrell

Chapter 2 THE ROLE OF PARADIGMS  Paradigm- the conceptual framework or approach within which the scientist works. A paradigm is a set of basic assumptions that outline the particular universe of scientific inquiry  Paradigms specify what problems scientists will investigate and how they will go about the investigation. They serve the vital function of indicating the rules to be followed  A paradigm injects inevitable biases into the definition and collection of data and may also affect the interpretation of facts  There are 5 paradigms: biological, psychoanalytical, humanistic and existential, learning and cognitive  Current thinking about abnormal beh tends to be multi faceted and tend to integrate several paradigms THE BIOLOGICAL PARADIGM  Biological paradigm- a broad theoretical view that holds that mental disorders are caused by some aberrant somatic process or defect. Its continuous of the somatoegnic hypothesis.  The paradigm has often been referred to as the medical model or disease model  The study of ab beh is linked historically to medicine  For a time the germ theory was the paradigm of medicine but it soon became apparent that this theory could not account for all diseases. Heart disease is one example. Medical illnesses can differ from one another in causes but they all share one characteristic: in al of them some bio process is disrupted or not functioning normally. That’s why its called the bio paradigm  The bio paradigm was the dominant paradigm in Canada and elsewhere from the late 1800s until at least the middle of the 20 cen  Hall; use of gynaecological procedures to treat “insanity” in women from B.C. he maintained that insanity exists when the Ego is dominated and controlled by the influence from a diseased periphery nerve tract or centre.. the removal of a small part of the physical disease might result in the restoration of the balance of power to such an organism and diminish if not remove the ab psychic phenomena. Removal of ovarian cysts or the entire ovaries was employed as treatment for melancholia, mania and delusions Contemporary approaches to the biological paradigm  Hereditary probably predisposes a person to have increased risk of developing schizto, depression may result from chemical imbalances within the brain, anxiety disorders may stem from a defect within the automatic NS that causes a person to be too easily aroused and dementia can be traced to impairments in structures of the brain  In each case the psychopathology is viewed as caused by the disturbance of some bio process Behaviour Genetics  When the ovum, female reproductive cell is joined by the male’s spermatozoon, a zygote or fertilized egg is produced.  It has 46 chromosomes, the # of characteristics of a human being  Each chromosome is made up of thousands of genes, the carriers of the genetic information (DNA) passed from parents to child  Gene- an ultramicroscopic area of the chromosome; the gene is the smallest physical unit of the DNA molecule that carries a piece of hereditary information  Behavioural genetics is the study of individual differences in beh that are attributable in part to differentiate in genetic makeup. It studies the degree to which characteristics such as psychical resemblance or psychopathology are shared by family members cuz of shared genes  The total genetic makeup of an individual consisting of inherited genes is referred to as the genotype  Genotype- an indiv unobservable genetic constitution; the totality of genes possessed by an indib  Phenotype- the totality of the persons observable, beh characterises such as the level of anxiety.  The genotype is fixed at birth but it should not be viewed as a static entity  The phenotype changes over time and is viewed as the product of an interaction between the genotype and the environment  Any measure of intelligence is best viewed as an index of the phenotype  Its critical to recognize that various clinical syndromes are disorders of the phenotype not of the genotype  Only the genotypes for these disorders can be inherited. Whether the genotype will eventually will come out in the phenotypic beh disorder depends on environment and experience.  A predisposition also known as a diathesis may be inherited but not the disorder itself  The study of genetics has relied on 4 basic methods to uncover whether a predisposition for psychopathology is inherited: comparison of members of a family, comparison of pairs of twins, the investigation of adoptees, and linkage analysis  The family method can be used to study a genetic predisposition among members of a family cuz the average # of genes shared by two blood relative is known  Parents and kids are identical in 50% of their genetic background. Ppl who share 50% of their genes with a given person are called first degree relatives of that person  Nephews and nieces share 25% of the genetic makeup of an uncle and are called second degree relatives  A sample of ppl who bear the diagnosis in question- these ppl are referred to as index cases or probands  If the genetic predisposition being studied is present 1 degree relatives of the index cases should have the st disorder at a higher rate than that found in the general population. Ex: about 10% of the 1 degree relatives of index cases with schitzo can be diagnosed as having shcitzo compared with about 1% of the general population  In the twin method both monozygotic (MZ) twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins are compared. MZ twins develop from a single fertilized egg and are genetically the same  DZ or fraternal develop from separate eggs and are on average only 50% alike genetically  MZ twins are always the same sex but DZ twins can be either the same or opposite  When the twins are similar diagnostically they are said to be concordant  If its said that a predisposition for a mental disorder can be inherited , concordance should be greater in genetically identical MZ pairs than in DZ pairs. When the MZ concordance rate is higher than the DZ rate the characteristics being studied is said to be heritable  Data shows that panic disorder runs in families but that a genetic predisposition is not necessarily involved  Equal environment assumption is that the environmental factors that are partial causes of concordance are equally influential for MZ pairs and DZ pairs. This seems to be reasonable  Other factors can complicate the resulted of twin research. Study of post traumatic stress disorder in community residents stein identified 3 factors as biasing heritably estimates: violation of the equal environment assumption, sex of the participant, and his or her age when the assessment took place  Only environmental factors contributed to exposure to events involving non assulative traumas ( car accidents) but genetic and enviro factors contributed to exposure to assualtive traumas (sexual assaults)  This genetic factors may determine the extent to which a person is likely to experience post traumatic stress after an assualtive trauma  This is the 1 study to examine this issue in a non military sample and the 1 to include women but its limited cuz rely on self report measures of trauma  Using the adoptees method study kids who were adopted and reared apart from their parents with ab disorders. If a high frequency of panic disorder were found in kids reared apart from parents who also had it could have support for theory that genetic predisposition is in the works Molecular Genetics  Tries to specify the particular gene or genes involved and the precise functions of these genes  Each cell consists of 46 chromosomes (23) pairs with thousands of genes per chromosome. The term allele refers to any one of several DNA codings that occupy the same position or location on a chromosome. A persons genotype is their set of alleles  The term genetic polymorphism refers to variability among members of the species. It involves differences in the DNA sequence that can manifest in very dif forms among members of the same habitat. It entails mutations in a chromosome that can be induced or naturally occurring  It was discovered in 2004 with research on male meadow voles that manipulating a gene, the vasopressin receptor by locating it in the reward centre of the brain had the effect of making an amorous promiscuous vole into a monogamous vole. Its possible a similar process determines whether humans refrain from having more than 1 partner  Linkage analysis is a method in molecular genetics hat is used to study ppl. Use this method in families in which a disorder is heavily concentrated  they collect diagnostic info and blood samples from affected indiv and their relatives and use them to study the inheritance patter of characteristics whose genetics are fully understood referred to as genetic markers ex: eye colour is controlled by a gene in a specific location on a specific chromosome  it is concluded that the gene predisposing indi to the psychopathology is on the same chromosome and in similar location on that chromate (its linked) as the gene controlling the other chracterticsi  linkage analysis in t.o found association btwn obsessive compulsive disorder and the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) type B receptor 1 (GABBR1) gene  greatest success is to identify genes that are imp in alzhinermers  study of genetic linkage in adolescents and young adults indicated that a locus on chromosome 9 is associated with enhanced risk for externalizing psychopathology (aggression and conduct disorder)  gene environment interactions – notion that a disorder or related symptoms are the joint product of a genetic vulnerability and specific environmental experiences or conditions Neuroscience and biochemistry in the Nervous system  the NS is composed of billions of neurons  neurons diff in some ways each neuron has four major parts: 1) the cell body 2) several dendrites 3) three or more axons of varying lengths 4) terminal buttons on many end branches of the axon  when a neuron is stimulated at its cell body or through its dendrites a nerve impulse which is a change in the electric potential of the cell travels down the axon to the terminal endings  between the terminal endings f the sending axon and the cell membrane of the receiving neuron there is a small gap called the synapse  for a nerve impulse to pass from one neuron to another and for communication to occur the impulse must have a way of bridging the synaptic gap  the terminal buttons of each axon contain synaptic vesicles, small structures that are filled with neurotransmitters, chemical substances that allow a nerve impulse to release molecules of their transmitter substances and these molecules flood the synapses and diffuse toward the receiving or postsynaptic neuron  the cell membrane of the postsynaptic cell contains proteins called receptor sites that are configured so that specific neurotransmitters can fit into them  when a neurotransmitter fits into a receptor site a message can be sent to the postsynaptic cell. What actually happens to the postsynaptic neuron depends on its integrating thousands of similar messages  sometimes the messages are excitatory leading to the creation of a nerve impulse in the postsynaptic cell at other times the messages can be inhibitory making the postsynaptic cell less likely to fire  once a presynaaptic neuron (the sending neuron) has released its neurotransmitter the last step is for the synapse to be returned to its normal state  not all of the released neurotransmitter has found its way to postsynaptic receptors. Some of what remains in the synapses is broken down by enzymes and some is pumped back into the presynaptic cell through a process called reuptake  norepinephrine a neurotransmitter of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system is involved in producing states of high arousal and thus may be involved in anxiety disorders  both serotonin and dopamine are neurotransmitters in the brain. Serotonin may be involved in depression and dopamine in schitzo. GABA inhibits some nerve impulses and maybe involved in anxiety disorders  puberty in adolescents results in a decrease in serotonin and a decrease in dopamine activity in certain cortical areas  some of the theories linking neurotransmitters to psychopathology have proposed that a given disorder is caused by either too much or too little of a particular transmitter (mania results from too much norepinephrine and anxiety disorders from too little GABA)  neurotransmitters are synthesized in the neuron through a series if metabolic steps beginning with amino acid  too much or too little of a particular transmitter could result from an error in these metabolic pathways. Similar disturbances in the amounts of specific transmitters could result from alterations in the usual processes by which transmitters are deactivated after being released into the synapse  receptors are at fault in some psychopathologies. If the receptors on the postsynaptic neurons were too numerous or too easily excited, the result would be akin to having too much transmitter released  the delusions and hallucinations of schitzo may result from an over abundance of dopamine receptors Biological approaches to treatment  implication of the bio paradigm is that prevention or treatment of mental disorders should be possible by altering bodily functioning  the use of psychoactive drugs has been increasing. In 1985 psychoactive drugs were prescribed in the U.S at about 33 million physician visits and in 1994 almost 46 million  tranquilizers as valium can be effective in reducing the tension associated with some anxiety disorders perhaps by stimulating GABA neurons to inhibit other neural system that create the physical symptoms of anxiety.  Antidepressants such as Prozac now the most widely prescribed psychoactive drugs increase neural transmission in neurons that use serotonini as a neurotransmitter by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin  Antipsyhcotic drugs such as Clozaril used in the treatment of schitzo reduce the activity of neurons that use dopamine as a neurotransmitter by blocking their receptors  Stimulants increase the levels of several neurotransmitters that help kids pay attention  Some disorders need meds –schitzo and bipolar  Treatment of depression with SSRIs rather than a placebo is associated with clinical improvement of symptoms by the end of the 1 week of use. The improvement continues at a decreasing rate for at least 6 weeks  Non –biological intervention can have beneficial effects  OCD showed decreased metabolism in the right caudate nucleus whereas CBT in phobia resulted in decreased activity in limbic and paralimbic areas. These effects are similar to those observed after successful treatment with SSRIs  In depression he notes both decreased and increased in prefrontal metabolism following psychological treatment and differences relative to drug treatment Evaluating the biological paradigm  Reductionism refers to the view that whatever is being studied can and should be reduced to its most basic elements or constituents  The whole is greater than the sum of its parts STRUCTURE AND FUNTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN BOX  inside the skull the brain is enveloped within three layers of non neural tissue, membranes referred to as meninges  viewed from the top the brain is divided by a midline fissure into two mirror image cerebral hemispheres together constituting most of the cerebrum.  The cerebrum is the thinking centre of the brain, which includes the cortex and sub cortex structures such as the basal ganglia and limbic system.  The major connections between the two hemispheres is a band of nerve fibres called the corpus callosum  The upper side and some of the lower surfaces of the hemispheres form the cerebral cortex  The corxt consist of 6 layers of tiglhy packed neuron cell bodies with many short unsheathed interconnecting processes  These neurons estimated to # 10-15 billion make up a thin outer covering the so called grey matter of the brain  The cortex is vastly convoluted; the ridges are called gyri and the depressions between them suici, several distinct areas called lobes  The frontal lobe lies in front of the central suclus, the parietal lobe is behind it and above the later suclus , the temporal lobe is located below the lateral suclus and the occipital love lies behind the parietal and temporal lobes  Vision in the occipital; discrimination of sounds in the temporal; reasoning and other higher mental processes as well as the regulation of fine voluntary movement in the frontal; initiation of movements of the skeletal musculature in a band in front of the central sulcus; and receipt of sensations of touch, pressure, pain, temperature and body position from skin, muscles, tendons, and joints in a band behind the central sulcus  The two hemispheres of the brain have different functions. The left hemisphere which generally controls the right half of the body cuz of the crossing over of motor and sensory fibres is responsible for speech and according to some neuropsychologists for analytical thinking in right handed ppl and in a fair # of left handed ppl as well  The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, discerns spatial relations and patterns and is involved in emotion and intuition  The two hemispheres communicate with each other constantly via the corpus callosum  The grey matter of the cerebral cortex does not extend throughout the interior of the brain.  Much of the interior is white matter made up of large tracts or bundles or myelinated (sheathed) fibres that connect cell bodies in the cortex with those in the spinal cord and other centres lower in the brain  These centres are pockets of grey matter referred to as nuclei. The nuclei serve both as way stations connecting tracts from the cortex with other ascending and descending tracts and as integrating motor and sensory control centres.  Some cortical cells project their long fibres or axons to motor neurons in the spinal cord but others project them only as far as these clusters of interconnecting neuron cell bodies.  Four masses are deep within each hemisphere called collectively the basal ganglia. Also deep within the brain are cavities called ventricles; those are continuo’s with the central canal of the spinal cord and are filled with cerebrospinal fluid  1) The diencephalons connected in the front of the hemispheres and behind with the midbrain contains the thalamus and the hypothalamus both consisting of groups of nuclei. The thalamus is a relay station for all sensory pathways except the olfactory. The nuclei making up the thalamus receive nearly all the impulse arriving from the different sensory areas of the body and then pass tem on to the cerebrum where they are interpreted as conscious sensations. The hypothalamus is the highest centre of integration for many visceral processes, regulating metabolism, temperature, perspiration, blood pressure, sleeping and appetite  2) The midbrain is a mass nerve fibre tracts connecting the cerebral cortex with the pons, the medulla oblongata, the cerebellum and the spinal cord  3) The brain stem comprises the pons and the medulla oblongata and functions primarily as a neural relay station. The pons contains tracts that connect the cerebellum with the spinal cord and with motor areas of the cerebrum. The medulla oblongata serves as the main line of traffic for tracts asceing from the spinal cord and desceing from the higher centres of the brain. At the bottom of the medulla, many of the motor fibres cross to the opposite side. The medulla also contains nuclei that maintain the regular life rhythms of the heartbeat of the rising and falling diaphragm and of the constricting and dilating blood vessels. In the core of the brain stem is the reticular formation sometimes called the reticular activating system cuz of the important role it pays in arousal and connect with the profusely interconnected cells of the reticular formation which in turn sends fibres to the cortex, the basal ganglia , the hypothalamus, the septal area and the cerebellum  4) the cerebellum, like the cerebrum consists primarily of two deeply convoluted hemispheres with an exterior cortex of grey matter and an inferior of white tracts. The cerebellum receives sensory info from the inner ear and from muscles, tendons and joints. The info received and integrated relates to balance, posture, equilibrium and to the smooth coordination of the body when in motion  5) a fifth important part of the brain the limbic system comprises structures that are continuous with one another in the lower cerebrum and that developed earlier than the mammalian cerebral cortex. The limbic system controls the visceral and physical expressions of emotion- quickened heartbeat and respiration, trembling, sweating, and alternations in facial expressions – as well as appetite and other primary drives namely hunger, thirst, mating, defence, attack and flight. Important structures in the limbic system are the cingulated gyrus, stretching about the corpus callosum, the septal area which is anterior to the thalamus; the long tube like hippocampus which stretches from the septal area to the temporal lobe and the amygdala which is embedded in the tip of the temporal lobe THE PSYCHOANALYTICAL PARADIGM  Psychoanalytic or psychodynamic paradigm was developed by Frued. it means that psychopathology result from unconscious conflicts in the indiv Structure of the mind  Frued divided the mind into 3 principal parts: id, ego and superego  1) The id is present at birth and is the part of the mind that accounts for all the energy needed to run the psyche. It comprises the basic urges for food, water, elimination, warmth, affection and sex.  Trained as a neurologist Freud saw the source of all the ids energy as biological. Only later at the infant develops is the energy which Freud called libido converted into psychic energy all of it unconscious below the level of awareness  The id seeks immediate gratification and operates according to the pleasure principle. When the id is not satisfied tension is produced and the id strives to eliminate this tension  Another means of obtaining gratification is primary process thinking –generating images—in essence fantasies— of what is desired  2) The ego is the next aspect of the psyche to develop. Unlike the id the ego is primarily conscious and begins to develop from the id during the 2 6months of life. Its task is to deal with reality. Through its planning and decision making functions called secondary process thinking the ego realized that operating on the pleasure principle at all times is not the most effective what of maintaining life. The ego thus operates on the reality principle as it mediates between the demands of reality and the immediate gratification desired by the id  the final part of the psyche to emerge is the superego which operates roughly as the conscience and develops throughout childhood  Freud believed that the superego developed from the ego much as the ego developed from the id. As kids discover that many of their impulses such as biting or bedwetting are not acceptable to their parents they begin to incorporate  introject, parental values as their own to enjoy parental approval and avoid disapproval  The interplay of these forces is referred to as the psychodynamics of the personality  Much of human beh is determined by forces inaccessible to awareness. The ids instincts as well as many of the superegos activities are not known to the conscious mind. While the ego is primarily conscious and is involved in thinking and planning it too has important unconscious aspects that protect it from anxiety.  Freud considered most of the important determinates of beh to be unconscious Neurotic anxiety  When ones life is in jeopardy one feels objective (realistic)anxiety –the egos reaction to danger in the external world according to Freud.  The person whose personality has not developed fully due to fixation at a stage may experience neurotic anxiety- a feeling of fear that is not connected to reality or to any real threat.  Moral anxiety arises when the impulses of the superego punish an indiv for not meeting expectations and thereby satisfy the principle that drives the superego—namely the perfection principle Defence mechanisms –coping with anxiety  Neurotic anxiety can be handled by means of a defence mechanism.  A defence mechanism is a strategy unconsciously used to protect the ego from anxiety  Most imp is repression which pushes unacceptable impulses and thoughts into the unconscious. By remaining repressed these infantile memories and desires cannot be corrected by adult experiences and retain their original intensity  Denial entails disavowing a traumatic experience such as being raped into to the unconscious.  Projection attributes to external agents characteristics or desires that an indiv possesses but cannot accept in his or her conscious awareness  Displacement redirecting emotional response from a dangerous object to a substitute (yelling at ones spouse instead of ones boss  Reaction formation converting ones feelings into its opposite  Regression retreating to the beh patterns o an earlier age  Rationalization inventing a reason for an unreasonable action or attitude  Sublimation converting sexual or aggressive impulses into social valued beg esp creative activity  All these allow the ego to discharge some id energy while not facing the true nature of the true nature f motivation.  Defence mechanism are more readily observed than other symptoms of a disorder personality they often make ppl aware of their troubled nature  Contemporary psychoanalysts consider some use of defence mechanisms to be adaptive and healthy Ex: after death denial is normal  But for most part defence mechanisms are maladaptive Relationship of psychoanalytic concepts to psychopathology  Phobias- irrational fears and avoidance of harmless objects or situations—were caused by an unresolved Oedipal conflict with the fear of the father displaced onto some other object or situation. When they are 4 /5 boys covet their mothers, albeit at an unconscious level.  Similarly OCD was traced to the anal stage with the urge to soil or to be aggressive transformed by reaction formation into compulsive cleanliness  In his early work Freud postulated that the cause of his patients hysterical problems was sexual abuse in childhood typically rape by the father Neo-Freudian psychodynamic perspectives  All have continued to embrace his emphasis on human beh as the product of dynamics within the psyche Psychoanalytic therapy  Classical psychoanalysis is based on frueds 2 theory of neurotic anxiety that neurotic anxiety is the reaction of the ego when a previously punished and repressed id impulse presses for expression  Psychoanalytic therapy is an insight therapy. It attempts to remove the earlier repression and help the patient face the childhood conflict, gain insight into it and resolve it in the light of adult reality. The repression occurring so long ago has prevented the ego from growing in an adult fashion; the lifting of the repression is supposed to enable this relearning to take place  Free association- when the patient reclines on a couch facing away from the analyst and is encouraged to give free rein on his or her thoughts verbalizing whatever comes to mind. Person can overcome defences that are built up.  The patient may suddenly become silent or change the topic. These resistances are noted by the analyst as they are assumed 2 signal a sensitive or ego threatening area. These sensitive areas are what the analyst will want to probe further  Dream analysis is another analytic technique. In sleep ego defences are relaxed allowing normally repressed material to enter the sleepers consciousness. Since this material is extremely threatening it is rarely allowed into consciousness in its actual form; rather the repressed material is disguised and dreams take on heavily symbolic context (referred to as the latent content of the dream)  Transference- the patients response to the analyst are not in keeping with the analyst-patient relationship but seem instead to reflect relationships with imp ppl in the patients past. Its encouraged cuz they can gain insight into the childhood origin of repressed conflicts  counter transference refers to analysts feelings toward the patient. Analyst must be aware of their own feelings so that they can see the patient clearly.  As repressed material begins 2 appear
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