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PSYC328 Textbook.docx

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McGill University
PSYC 328
Blaine Ditto

PSYC328 Introduction to Health Psychology Chapter 1 9142012 70800 AM What is Health Psychology Health psychologyUnderstanding psychological influences on how people stay healthy o Why they become ill o How they respond when they get illHealth psychologists o Study issues and promote interventions to help people stay well over illnesses Health1948 o World Health Organization defined asComplete state of physical mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmityNot absence of illness but recognized to be an achievement involving balance among physical mental and social wellbeingWellness is optimum state of health Health psychologistsFocus on o Health promotion and maintenance o Etiology and correlates of health illness and dysfunctionAlso study o The psychological aspects of the prevention and treatment of illness o Analyze and attempt to improve the health care system and the formulation of health policyEtiology o Refers to the origins or causes of illnessH psychologists are interested in behaviouralsocial factors that contribute to health or illness and dysfunction How Has Our View of the MindBody Relationship Changed Over Time Earliest timesMind and body considered a unit o Disease arose when evil spirits entered the body and that the spirits could be exorcised through the treatment process o TrephinationHoles in skull to allow evil spirits to leave the body while the shaman performed the treatment ritual GreeksDeveloped a theory of illness proposed by Hippocrates and then Galen expanded on it o Disease arises when four circulating fluids of the bodyblood black bile yellow bile and phlegmare out of balanceTreatments is to restore balance among these fluids o Specific personality types were associated with bodily temperamentsAscribed disease states to bodily factors but believed that these factors can impact the mind as well Middle AgesSupernatural explanations of illnessMysticism and demonology dominated concepts of disease o Gods punishment o Cure consisted of driving out evil byTorturePrayerPenanceChurch was guardian of medical knowledgeHealing and curing was done by the priest Early years of RenaissanceImagination and emotions seen as the way people could connect with GodIf ill it was because of a lack of faith and imagination to restore connection to GodPhysician had to cure the attack of illness as well as altering the imagination to induce bodily changeHealing relied on the patients belief in words and practices of physician Renaissance till nowVarious peoples work in autopsy put humoral theory of illness to restMedicine looked more to the medical lab and bodily factors rather than to mind as a basis for medical progressDualistic conception of mind and body was strongly reinforced so that physicians became guardians of body and philosophers became caretakers of mind o To break superstitions of past Psychoanalytic ContributionView began to change with psychology o Sigmund Freuds early work on conversion hysteriaSpecific unconscious conflicts can produce particular physical disturbances that symbolize the repressed psychological conflictsPatients converts the conflict into a symptom via voluntary nervous systemThen becomes free of anxiety the conflict would produce Psychosomatic Medicine Dunbar and AlexanderArgue that conflicts produce anxiety which becomes unconscious and takes a physiological toll on body via autonomic nervous systemProduces actual organic disturbanceHelped shape the emerging field of psychosomatic medicineo Offered profiles of bodily disorders caused by emotional conflictsNow believe that conflicts or personality type is not sufficient to produce illness o Onset of disease requires the interaction of a variety of factorsGenetic weakness in organismPresence of environmental stressorsEarly learning experiences and conflictsCurrent ongoing learning and conflictsIndividual cognitions and coping efforts Behavioural Medicine
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