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PSYC 328 (50)
Chapter 1

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PSYC 328
Blaine Ditto

Chapter 1 October 16, 2013 4:44 PM Health Psychology: - Understanding psychologicalinfluences on how people stay healthy - Why they becomeill - How they respond when they get ill - Focus on: health promotion and maintenance Health: " a completestate of physical, mental, and social well-beinnot merely the absence of disease or infirmity" - WHO - Achievementinvolving BALANCE - "wellness":referred by many as optimum state of health Etiology: origins or causes of illnesses - Health psychologist:interested in behavioural and social factors that contribute to health or illness Mind-Body Relationship: Historically: mind and body are part of thsame system VS two separate ones - Earliest times - considered SINGLE UNIT - Disease = result of spirits entering the body and could be exorcised - Stone Age: Skulls with holes to let the spirits leave = trephination - Greeks: humoral system by Hippocrates ○ Disease = four humours out of balance - Middle Ages: ○ Used Galen's humoral theory ○ Demonology dominated concepts of disease  Prayer, penance, bloodletting(cures)  Church was guardian of medical knowledge - Renaissance: patients' thoughtsand beliefs were central to changes in physical states ○ Illness = lack of faith - Humoral approach ended by growing scientific understandingof cellular pathology - Descartes' mind-body DUALISM ○ Physicians became guardians of the body ○ Focused on organic and cellular changes ○ Physical evidence = basis for diagnosis and treatment of illness  Changed AGAIN - Sigmund Freud - Conversion Hysteria: specific unconscious conflicts can produce particular physical disturbances that symbolize the repressed psychological conflicts ○ Patient converts conflict --> symptom  Via voluntary nervous system  Becomes relatively free of the anxiety ○ Psychoanalytic contributions - Psychosomatic medicine: ○ Bodily disorders due to EMOTIONAL conflicts (Dunbar & Alexander)  Linked patternsof personality rather than single specific conflict to specific illnesses (Freud) illnesses (Freud) ○ Some ideas still persist - some personalities more prone to disease ○ Relied on subjective, verbal interventions - DID NOT PROVIDE TESTABLE HYPOTHESES - Behavioural medicine: ○ Focused on objective and clinically relevant interventionsthat demonstratedthe connections between body and mind ○ Biofeedback: Behavioural Medicine (book) Current Views : Physical health is connectepsychological and social environment - Conditionsof Health AND illness are influenced by psychological AND social factors ○ So are treatments ○ Good habits, SES, culture
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