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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes.pdf

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PSYC 332
Richard Koestner

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PSYC332 - Chapter 3 Notes Social Learning And Culture: • Skinner made up a mythical society whereby everything was functioned through positive reinforcement instead of punishment; this would elicit the positive behaviour and to eschew negative behaviours American Environmentalism: The Behaviourist Tradition • Behaviourism is a brand of psychology that explores the ways in which observable behaviour is learned and shaped by the environment (Skinner was most eloquent spokesman) • Behaviourism was the dominant force in American academic psychology from 1920 through 1950s • Watson boasted he could take any random infant and train him/her to be anything by putting them in the right environment; based off of Locke set tabula rasa, “blank slate” which he believed was what infants were born with • Locke also argued that environment shaped the individual’s personality • Environment shaped behaviour through learning, argues behaviourists. We learn in order to obtain pleasure and avoid pain • In 18th and 19th century, philosophy of utilitarianism put forth the idea that the “good” society should make for the greatest happiness or pleasure for the greatest number of people • Utilitarians advocated equality for all, woman’s suffrage, abolition of discrimination on the basis of religion and race, and redistribution of society’s wealth • Distrusted kings and religion as utilitarians were flexible to accommodate changing ethical circumstances. Behaviourism was rooted in utilitarianism • Learning occurs through the association of actions with either positive (pleasurable) or negative (painful events). The doctrine of associationism purports that various objects and ideas that are contiguous in time or space come to be connected, or associated, with each other into meaningful units • Classical Conditioning by Pavlov was famous by making dog’s salivate at the ring of a bell • Meat is unconditioned stimulus that gives rise to salivation (which Is unconditioned response) • Bell is conditioned stimulus where the dog will salivate (conditioned response) which is now called the conditioned stimulus • Stimulus generalization is a prime example in case of little Albert where he was scared with white rats, but at the end was scared of any little, white furry objects • Classical conditioning may be implicated in the development of certain neurotic symptoms, especially phobias, and in other more complex attitudes and behaviour systems through higher-order conditioning • In higher-order conditioning, conditioned stimuli, which obtain their power through associations with unconditioned stimuli, come to be associated with other neutral stimuli, which themselves become conditioned stimuli by virtue of the association • Classical conditioning is not seen anymore as a simple, low-level form of learning. Rescorla argues that contiguity in time and place is not what makes conditioning work. Instead, classical conditioning enables the organism to form an accurate representation of the world In Pavlovian example, the tone becomes associated with the bell not because the two arrive on the scene at about the • same time but rather because the tone provides information about the meat • Instrumental condition, termed by Skinner as operant condition is where behaviour is modified by its consequences. • Positive consequences for a behaviour increase the likelihood of its recurrence, thus reinforcing the association between the behaviour and the various stimuli in the environment present at the time the behaviour occurred • Negative consequences decrease the likelihood the behaviour will recur, thus weakening stimulus - response connections • The process of reinforcing closer and closer approximations to a desired behaviour in an attempt to elicit that behaviour is called shaping (Walden Two) • Punishment merely alerts the person to what should not be done while providing no example of a constructive alternative, punishment is generally a rather weak form of behavioural control • In partial reinforcement, a particular response is reinforced intermittently, whereas in continuous reinforcement the response is reinforced every time it occurs. When behaviour is no longer reinforced, extinction might eventually occur: The behaviour decreases in frequency and eventually dies out • Behaviour that has been partially reinforced is much more difficult to extinguish than continuously reinforced behaviour • Some of the most powerful reinforcers are called conditioned generalized reinforcers - reinforcers that acquire their power because of their association with a variety of other reinforcers Money is a great example because it enables one to purchase a great variety of other reinforcers • • Buss divides social reinforcers into two general classes: stimulation rewards and affective rewards • Stimulation rewards include receiving attention from others. It indicates that others are responding in some way to the self Affective rewards include receiving respect, praise and affection. It constitutes an emotional response from others • • Behaviourism has spawned a number of influential approaches that fall under the name of social-learning theories which retain some of behaviorism's emphasis on environmentalism and learning, while adopting a broader view of human behaviour that incorporates important cognitive variables that cannot be directly observed Table 3.1: Key Concepts of Operant Conditioning Concept Definition Example Positive reinforcer Any stimulus that, because of its presentation after a A first grade teacher’s praise for a response, strengthens the response. In effect, the child’s obedient behaviour leads to organism is rewarded for the response increased obedience in the future Negative reinforcer Any stimulus that, because of its removal after a Criticism from one’s mother-in-law about response, strengthens the response. In effect, the smoking cigarettes ceases when the organism experiences relief (a kind of reward) after individual quits smoking. Removal of the response criticism is reinforcing serving as a reward for giving up cigarettes Positive punishment Any stimulus that, because of its presentation after a A speeding motorist on his way to the response, weakens the response. Positive Indianapolis 500 is pulled aside by a punishments are aversive or painful stimuli that police and given a $200 ticket. The reduce the behaviour they follow traffic ticket serves as a punishment, which leads to less speeding by the motorist in the future Negative punishment Any stimulus that, because of its removal after a A teenage who repeatedly breaks response, weakens the response. Negative curfew is “grounded” by her parents for punishments remove pleasurable stimuli a week. A positive reinforcer (going out with friends) is therefore removed. In subsequent weeks the teenager comes home at the correct time Extinction A previously reinforced behaviour is no longer A child no longer says “please” and reinforced; eventually the behaviour decreases and “thank you” at the dinner table because drops to baseline levels the parents no longer reinforce the behaviour with smiles and compliments Shaping Getting the organism to emit a complex response by A Little League coach teaches a child to reinforcing successive approximations to the hit a ball by praising a number of simple behaviours that make up the complex response. A behaviours of batting. Early on, the child complex, final response may be shaped by is reinforced for standing in the rewarding the organism for the simple component appropriate way, then for level swinging responses that make it up of the bat. Then the child is praised when the bat actually strikes the ball. Finally, praise is delivered only when the child shows the entire proper batting stance and swing and hits the ball solidly Continuous reinforcement Delivering reinforcement after event instances of a Every time a man tells his girlfriend he particular response. Behaviour submitted to a lovers her, she kisses him continuous reinforcement schedule is learned rapidly Partial reinforcement Not reinforcing every instance of the behaviour, but Interval schedule: An officer worker rather delivering reinforcement intermittently receives a paycheck once every2 according to a particular schedule. Interval weeks. reinforcements schedules administer reinforcement after a particular period of time. Ratio reinforcement Ratio schedule: A computer salesman schedules administer reinforcement after a particular receives a bonus after he sells 100 number of responses. Behaviour submitted to partial computers reinforcement schedules, either interval or ratio, is more resistant to extinction than behaviour that is reinforced continually Expectancies And Values: • Rotter viewed the person as actively constructing his or her own reality, rather than merely passively responding to it • Most human learning, occurs in a social context, as people learn to anticipate what others will do and then act on those anticipations Key concept is Rotter’s social-learning theory is expectancy, a subjectively head probability that a particular reinforcement • will occur as the outcome of a specific behaviour • Over time, furthermore, people develop generalized expectancies in terms of locus of control • People with an internal locus of control expect reinforcements and rewards to follow their own actions (own behaviour controls consequences that follows) • People with external locus of control expects that his or her behaviour will not lead to predictable reinforcement. Rather, reinforcements are dispensed by external sources of control, such as powerful others, chance, luck, etc. (reinforcing events do not appear to be contingent on his or her behaviour) Most famous test to measure locus of control is the I-E Scale • • Studies suggest that internal locus of control is associated with many positive outcomes in life • Another key concept for Rotter is reinforcement value which refers to the subjective attractiveness of a particular reinforcement BP (behaviour potential) = E (expectancy) + RV (reinforcement value) • • People are most likely to obtain goals for which (a) they expect to be reinforced (high E) and (b) the expected reinforcements are highly valued (high RV) • They are least likely to act to obtain goals for which (a) they do not expect to be reinforced (low E) and (b) the reinforcements they might obtain are not especially valued (low RV) • Cognitive/Social Learning/Person Variables which are characteristic strategies or styles of approaching situations, and are thought to grow out of the individual’s previous experiences with both situations and rewards • Competencies refer to what a person knows and can do Encoding strategies deal with the manner in which people interpret information • • Self regulatory systems and plans refer to the ways we regulate and guide our own behaviour through self-imposed goals and standards Bandura’s Social-Learning Theory: • Provides an especially inclusive social-learning perspective, which greatly expands the domain of learning to encompass observational learning and cognitive processes and which pays close attention to the complex and recursive ways in which person variables, environmental variables, and behaviour itself influence on another Observational Learning: • Behaviourist theories cannot explain why people learn in the absence of reinforcement and/or the satisfaction of biological needs Bandura contends that certain learning occurs outside the bounds of pleasure and pain. We learn by watching other people • behave, reading about it, and observing the world • Observational learning is where people routinely learn by observing and they often perform (behave) by imitating what they see Four stages to observational learning: • • Stage 1: attentional processes involves observing the model • Stage 2: retention processes involves the person encoding, remembering and make sense of what he or she observes if learning is to occur
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