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Psychology (1,418)
PSYC 332 (129)


6 Pages

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PSYC 332
Richard Koestner

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PSYC 332 | KOESTNER | WINTER 2013 | FINAL EXAM REVIEW CHAPTER 6 - COMMUNITY AND CHANGE IN TRAITS TWO KINDS OF CONTINUITY Absolute Continuity ● constancy in the quantity or amount of an attribute over time Differential continuity ● stability of individual differences in scores ○ the consistency of individual differences within a sample of individuals over time, to the retention of an individual's relative placement in a group ● individuals’ relative standing one another on a given dimension ● low differential continuity does not tell us in what direction people change * absolute continuity and differential continuity are completely unrelated DIFFERENTIAL CONTINUITY IN THE ADULT YEARS Longitudinal studies ● remarkably high differential continuity in personality traits over adult lifespan ● Ratings that make up the Big Five dimensions of Extraversion & Neuroticism = strong longitudinal consistency CHILDHOOD PRECURSORS: FROM TEMPERAMENT TO TRAITS Six temperament dimensions in infants (first year) (Rothbart, 1986) ● activity level ● smiling and laughter ● fearfulness ● distress to limitations ● soothability ● vocal activity 3 PSYC 332 | KOESTNER | WINTER 2013 | FINAL EXAM REVIEW CHAPTER 6 - COMMUNITY AND CHANGE IN TRAITS THE LOGIC OF TWIN AND ADOPTION STUDIES Heritabilityquotient ● Estimates the proportion of variability in a given characteristic that can be attributed to genetic differences between people Rough Estimate of Heritabilityin Twin Studies 2 h = 2 (rmz- dz) → MZcorrelation minus DZcorrelation X 2 → h : hertability quotient rmz correlation between respective trait scores for MZtwins rdz correlation between respective trait scores for DZtwins Behavior Genetics Explores the empirical evidence concerning the relative influences of genetic and environmental factors in accounting for variability in human behavior (Rowe, 1997) HERITABILITY ESTIMATES OF TRAITS ● Virtually all personality traits that can be reliably measured are at least moderately heritable 4 PSYC 332 | KOESTNER | WINTER 2013 | FINAL EXAM REVIEW CHAPTER 6 - COMMUNITY AND CHANGE IN TRAITS NONSHARED ENVIRONMENTS 6 Categories of Nonshared FamilyEffects (Rowe, 1999) 1. perinatal trauma ○ injuries or damage sustained by the fetus before birth ○ differentiate child from other family members from the beginning 2. accidental events ○ physical injuries to winning raffle prize at state fair ○ chance happenings may impact personality 3. family constellation ○ includes birth order + birth spacing b/w siblings 4. sibling mutual interaction ○ children in family interact w/ others in complex ways over time ○ form alliances, competing, cooperating, wide social roles ○ i.e. 3rd daughter close w/ youngest; 2nd child close w/ oldest (only) son 5. unequal parental treatment ○ “Mom always liked you the most!” ○ “Dad played sports with the sons but ignored daughters...” 6. influences outside the family ○ different social groups; teachers, peers, etc. GENE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS: NEW FINDINGS FROM NEUROSCIENCE Serotonin 5-HT transporter gene (5-HTTP) ● involved in producing protein molecules that are responsible for removing serotonin from the synaptic cleft between neurons ● short alleles appear to be linked to somewhat less efficient reuptake of serotonin in the synpatic cleft ○ at least one short allele for 5-HTTP may be a risk factor for anxiety and depression 5 PSYC 332 | KOESTNER | WINTER 2013 | FINAL EXAM REVIEW CHAPTER 6 - COMMUNITY AND CHANGE IN TRAITS (Caspi, 2003) ● at least one short allele of 5-HTTP lea
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