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PSYC 332
Richard Koestner

PSYC 332­ Introduction to Personality  PART III Filling in the Details: CharacteristicAdaptations to Life Tasks CHAPTER 7 Motives and Goals: What Do We Want in Life? McAdams’5 yr old daughter’s response to ‘why people do what they do’– Because they want to Human motivation: the wants, desires, and aims that produce behavior. Root of word comes from motion - what gets people moving. Old theories of motivations: people are motivated to attain things they want and avoid things they don’t want- develop goals tog et what they want and act on those goals Some suggest that what we want is derived directly from what we need Klinger (1978) Darwinian belief about motivation: goal-striving and motivation are inborn characteristics ofALL animals because we all share the behavioral imperative of surviving and procreating Characteristic adaptations: second level of personality- more specific aspect of individuality that are contextualized in time, place, or social role. Motives and goals are one class of adaptations. People act on what they want. But what do people want? THE PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEW th Most influential psychologist of 20 century was Freud- invented psychoanalysis: has actually had a big impact on the field of personality psychology and other fields in terms of inhibitions, repressed memories, Oedipus complex, Freudian slips, etc. At heart of psychoanalytic theory is Freud’s theory of motivation. Can be reduced to 4 principles Freudian Principle Description 1) Determinism We are not masters of our fate- forces we have little control over determine human experience 2) Drive These powerful forces are within us and can be traced back to primitive instincts (most important is drive for sexuality and aggression) According to Freud: people want sexual satisfaction and good outlets for aggression 3) Conflict The forces that determine our behavior and experience are in constant conflict causing us anxiety - we are destined to be miserable because we want too much of what we can’t have 4) Unconscious We are not even aware of what the drives and conflicts are – they are not conscious to us (arguably the worst of the 4) According to Freud: Sex and aggression explains all human motivation and behavior- they are the energy sources of psychological life Freud’s idea that there exist two sets of instincts/ drives: 1) Eros: sexual and all other life instincts 2) Thanatos: aggression and all other death instincts Too many constraints in the real world so instincts get played out in fantasies, dreams, and in everyday behavior but in sublimated ways- so subtle we don’t even notice- this is the essence of psychoanalysis PSYC 332­ Introduction to Personality  THE UNCONSCIOUS Russian novelist Dostoyevsky said men have some thoughts they only share with their friends, some things they keep to themselves and won’t even share with their friends, and some things that are so feared, man won’t even share them with himself. The unconscious: idea that much of what we know and feel is outside our every conscious awareness and this runs our lives So we cannot actually know why we do what we do because the determinants are unconscious Freud says patients’negative symptoms were manifestation of negative event they can’t even remember anymore- but subconscious reminisce still troubles them Most of what is really important in life lies beneath surface of cothciousness th Freud wasn’t the first to have these ideas about the unconscious (18 century philosophers, 19 century Romantics, Hyponosis) Baumeister and Gay (1986) argue that middle-class adults in 19C Europe accepted idea of inner world unknowable to conscious self- suggested idea that others may come to know you better then you know yourself based on what you disclose (example from Victorian men). Freud’s Topographical model of human functioning: makes distinctions between conscious, preconscious, and unconscious regions of the mind. Region of Mind Characteristics Conscious What a person is currently aware of Conscious experience can be verbalized and thought about in logical way Preconscious What a person is not yet currently aware of but has potential to enter consciousness if person decides to retrieve the material Can be conceived of as ordinary memory Vast storehouse of important and trivial information at our disposal Unconscious Information that cannot be readily retrieved Contains actively repressed experiences Ideas, images, urges & feelings associated with conflict, pain, fear, & guilt so it’s unconscious for a reason With topographical model anything that is not compatible with dominant self-protective consciousness falls into the unconscious Box Feature 7.A SIGMUND FREUD AND THE BIRTH OF PSYCHOANALYSIS Freud adored his mother and he was her favorite Freud’s heroes were the great Romantics (Napoleon, Geothe) Romanticism: European intellectual movement that emphasized reason, order, and the common good, and celebrated passionate life of individual (rejected classical teachings) Where Freud got idea that person is destined to live in constant conflict Taught Freud to focus on uniqueness of the inner self and its development over time. Working under Ernst Brucke at University of Vienna, (where he studied natural science) Freud learned that all natural phenomena must be explained in physical and chemical terms. Hysteria: common psychological disturbance of 19 where patients suffered from bizarre bodily symptoms without physical cause- such as paralysis of limbs & visual disorders. French teacher Charcot would treat hysteria using hypnosis- gave Freud idea that their symptoms came from the mind Through case ofAnna O- Breuer discovered that hysterical symptoms can be removed through ‘talking cure’ Breuer & Freud parted was & became enemies bc B didn’t agree that deepest urges were sexual Freud went off on his own and was very successful- called it his ‘glorious heroic age of splendid isolation’ Became known as the father of the psychoanalytic movement REPRESSIONAND REPRESSORS Research in cognitive science shows that much of everyday mental life is outside of conscious awareness Implicit information processing: we perceive learn and remember things without being consciously aware of doing so PSYC 332­ Introduction to Personality  Also, most of what we think about ppl and social situations is driven by nonconscious automatic mental processes Recent research by Dujksterhuis & Nordgren (2006) - Gave students large amount of information on apartments in city and asked them to secede which they would live in - One was clearly superior to the others but not easy to perceive so because so much information about so many places given to them quickly & little time to make decision - 1 group asked to consciously think about their decision for 3 mins nd - 2 group distracted by other task for 3 mins and asked to make their decision - Second group chose the correct apartment more often than first group! - Concluded that 2 group relied on unconscious thinking and that it is often better than conscious thought to process large amounts of information in efficient and effective manner Idea that ‘gut instincts’can sometimes be better than conscious thought Repression: function of rejecting and keeping things out of consciousness to protect the self from psychological harm Individual differences in repression are important factor in personality Weinberger, Schwartz, and Davidson (1979) description of Repressors: persons who experience little anxiety on conscious level and adopt highly defensive approach to life Study by Crowne & Marloe (1964) on uncovering repressive coping styles - Got scores from self report questionnaires on anxiety and social desirability (how likely ppl are to describe themselves in overly nice ways) - People exposed to phrases with sexual and aggressive content - Repressors: low levels of subjective distress compared to low-anxious (low anxiety, low defensiveness) and defensive-high-anxious (high anxiety, high defensiveness) - BUT physiological measures found Repressors had higher arousal levels than other 2 groups - So repressors did not consciously perceive the stimuli as threatening but threat was perceived at unconscious level. Three Degrees of Repressiveness (Davidson) Style Description Repressor Low anxiety- High Defensiveness Low-Anxious Low anxiety- Low Defensiveness High-Anxious High anxiety- Low Defensiveness Penelope Davis (1987): series of studies examining how repressors recall emotional experiences from their lives Study 1: female college students asked to recall 6 kinds of personal experiences from childhood: general memories, experiences of happiness, sadness, anger, fear, & wonder - Repressors recalled fewer negative memories than Low anxious and High anxious individuals - Repressors reported fewer positive memories as well Study 2: found that repressors recalled fewer childhood experiences in which they felt significant emotions (happy, sad, fearful, guilty, and self-conscious) compared to others - Repressors show significantly fewer memories of sadness, anger, and fear compared with high-anxious and low-anxious individual - Inhibition especially present for fear & self consciousness - BUT in experiences where someone else was happy, sad, angry, or fearful- repressors reported more experiences - Repressors also report greater number of memories involving emotional experiences of other people - Result suggest repression is not general memory deficit but involves protecting the self from negative evaluation: fear & self consciousness happen when there is self threat PSYC 332­ Introduction to Personality  - So repression may operate most powerfully in domain of self-evaluation - Most prone to repress experiences in which self is judged negatively Study by Hansen & Hansen (1988) explored ‘architecture of repression:’mechanisms whereby emotionally tagged memories are left inaccessible - Argue that repressors have less complex and more discrete associative network for negative emotional experience- draw out one emotion and repress it - Non repressors are able to report more emotions from a negative experience and tie it into their autobiographical self The Study: - Undergraduate students assigned to recall, describe, and evaluate an angering, embarrassing, sad, or fearful event from past - Told to picture event in their minds and remember it vividly then write description - Then asked to rate how they felt in situation on 10 emotional dimensions - Results showed that each negative memory elicits many different emotional reactions- each memory had one dominant and set of non-dominant emotions attached to it o For sad memories: sadness was main emotion but non-dominant emotions depression, anger, and fear also identified o For embarrassing memories: embarrassment main emotion but non-dominant emotion of shame also identified - Differences between repressors and other revealed in non-dominant emotions but not dominant ones - For any event, both types reported comparable levels of dominant emotion intensity but repressors rated non-dominant emotions at less intense levels - This is the repressor’s defense: stops the negative emotion at the dominant one before it spreads to other negative emotions and leads to recollections of other past negative experiences More Recent Studies of Repression Myers & Brewin (1994) found that although repressors recall fewer negative memories from childhood, recall their parents as being especially indifferent or neglecting- negativity still seeps into their lives Cutler et al. (1996) examined daily diaries to find repressors recall fewer unpleasant memories but also experience less intense negative emotion in daily life Bonanno et al. (1991) showed that repressors are especially skilled at shifting attention away from material they wish to ignore This could come at cost: repressive coping style associated with asthma, cancer, hypertension, & suppressed immune function. Bonano et a; (2004, 2007) found upside to repression- in periods of extreme stress repressive coping style can lead to Resilience: the ability to overcome difficult obstacles in life and thrive amidst adversity Longitudinal study gathered physiological data (skin-conductance response) and self-reported negative emotion of bereaved individuals discussing their losses. Repressors: reported low levels of negative emotion but showed high levels of autonomic responding- so they felt little conscious distress during conversation At 18 month follow-up, correlated repressive coping and physiological measures with self-report, friend ratings, and psychiatric interviews for psychological adjustment Bereaved repressors showed better physical health and better psychological adjustment 18 months later Non-repressors shoed poorer health and worst adjustment: poorer self and friend-ratings, higher levels of psychiatric symptoms Bonano conclusions: repression is sometimes best strategy to employ when faced with traumatic life events PSYC 332­ Introduction to Personality  THE EGO’S DEFENSES According to Freud, mind can be broken down into three independent structures Structure Description/ Characteristics Id Most primitive German for ‘the it’ Completely submerged in unconscious Home of instinctual impulses: sex and aggression Wishes, fantasies, inclinations Chaotic- provides all instinctual energy for mental life No inhibitions/ moral constraints Primary process thinking: loose, fluid and irrational thought associated with dreaming- motivated by sex and aggression instincts Activity: dictated solely from pleasure principle- pleasure derives from reduction of tension in immediate gratification of impulses Ego Emerges in infancy to save id- because you can’t live that way (fantasy etc.) Handmaiden to the id- works to mediate between id instincts and constraints of external world Ensures safety of organism via Reliability principle: uses rational thought to suspend immediate instinctual gratification until appropriate object or environmental condition arises that will satisfy instinct Secondary process thinking: conscious, deliberate, and geared towards solving problems rationally and realistically Some of ego is conscious: decision-making but some is unconscious- defense mechanism: unconscious strategy of the ego that distorts reality to lessen anxiety Superego Develops later in childhood German for ‘the over I’ Primitive internalized representation of norms and values of society acquired through identification with parents Strict agent who insists on repression of id’s instincts The little parent or devil/ angel inside your head: tells you to ‘Go for it or Not!’ Though different- both Id and superego are impervious to outside demands Each serve different purposes Major conflicts producing anxiety are often result of disagreement among these agents Conflicts: Realistic anxiety: produced by the reality of the outside world on the Ego Neurotic anxiety: the id threatens the ego with possibility of uncontrollable release of id’s instinctual energy Moral anxiety: superego at fault- allows for feelings of guilt over moral transgressions or failing to live up to ideals Ego is lonely agent of reasonableness amidst outside pressure- can sometimes break down and lead to neurotic symptoms Defense Mechanisms of the Ego (probably won’t need to know this) Mechanism Definition Repression Dangerous impulse is excluded from consciousness Projection Attributing one’s own unacceptable thoughts/ impulses to someone else (stop projecting on me!) Reaction formation Warding off unacceptable impulse by over-emphasizing opposite in though and behavior PSYC 332­ Introduction to Personality  Rationalization Devising reasonable excuse for behavior that threatens person’s esteem Regression Retreating to primitive stage in order to avoid pain, threat, or anxiety Displacement Shifting an impulse from threatening to non-threatening object Sublimation Channeling socially unacceptable impulses into acceptable/ admirable behavior Ego psychologists: more optimistic about the ego than Freud was- thought ego promotes healthy adaptation to life through functions of learning, memory, perception, and synthesis. Ego organizes experience so that organism can become competent member of society Ego also has defense mechanisms to cope with anxiety (some primitive, some more mature) Study by Phoebe Cramer (1991, 2992) most significant study on defense mechanisms of the Ego - Tested hypothesis that immature defense mechanisms should arise early in life then taper off, while mature ones, should develop later - Focused on 3 Defense Mechanisms Mechanism Characteristics Denial Most primitive mechanism of all Person refuses to acknowledge anxiety-provoking event Can be used at all ages but most common among very young Only used in most upsetting and threatening situations Projection More mature than denial Person attributes unacceptable internal states to external others Requires that standards of ‘good and bad’be internalized so that bad can be projected outwards Develops in middle childhood with conscience Identification Most mature Person forms enduring mental representation of significant others Person replicates traits of others as way of coping Requires clear differentiation of self and other and complex understanding of differences among various people Becomes effective in adolescence and remains throughout life Another study by Cramer analyzed creative stories told by children in 4 age groups ranging from 4 to 12h graders - Kids asked to make up story about 2 chosen pictures - Stories were analyzed for evidence of defense mechanisms - Results: o Stories by youngest children contained evidence of denial whereas those of older children did not o Projection and identification low among young children and increased thereafter o Findings support psychoanalytic hypothesis that the three defense mechanisms differ in relative maturity: denial most prominent in youngest kids and projection/ identification in older kids and teens Review of unusual study by Dollinger and Cramer (1990) on use of three defense mechanisms among kids who witnessed traumatic event - Preteens from rural Illinois witnessed entire soccer field of young players, coaches, and parents on sidelines being knocked down by lightening bolt during storm- one kid was hit directly and died - Psychological evaluation revealed ‘upset rating’which was related to parents’reports of kids’ sleep disturbances and complaints after event,AND kids’reports of their fears o Kids with high ‘upset score’avoided soccer for subsequent 2-year interval - Imaginative stories in response to pictures involving lightening also obtained PSYC 332­ Introduction to Personality  o Found denial was used even though not typical of age group but was probably because of severity of trauma o There was relation between defense mechanism and level of emotional upset  Boys with least emotional upset used the most projection (this is most age appropriate mechanism here) – it was an effective strategy  Boys who showed low levels of projection showed high levels of emotional upset  Denial and identification were NOT effective in coping with upset - Conclusions: this study underscores psychoanalytic hypothesis that age-appropriate defense mechanisms may be most effective I warding off anxiety and helping people cope Study by George Valliant (1971, 1977) investigated relationship between age appropriate defensive styles and overall adult adjustment - Small sample, well educated men, 25 yr period - Found men who consistently used mature defenses was positively associated with overall index of adjustment including physical health, career advancement, and marital enjoyment Valliant & Drake (1985) found that use of mature defenses predicted greater levels of interpersonal intimacy and meaningful productive work in large sample of working-class men Cramer (2002) found use of more primitive defense mechanisms was associated with higher levels of anxiety in young adults Those who relied on denial showed signs of behavioral immaturity Those who relied on projection showed suspicious and hyperalert pattern of interacting with other people Conclusions on Psychoanalytic View Psychoanalytic view of motivation suggests: our behavior, thought, and feelings are energized and directed by unconscious desires that ultimately stem from sexual and aggressive instincts Characteristic adaptations are seen as specific ways to express sexual and aggressive drives and cope with motivational conflicts Defense mechanisms that are most age-appropriate may be most effective in dealing with stress For adults, use of mature defense mechanisms is associated with greater social adjustment and occupational achievement THE HUMANISTIC VIEW The two most famous names in 20 Century psychology were Freud (Psychoanalysis) and Skinner (Behaviorism) Psychoanalysts and Behaviorists had one thing in common: both believed that human behavior is motivated by forces over which individual has little control Psychoanalysis: drives for sex and aggression Behaviorism: drives for hunger, thirst, environmental contingencies for reinforcement Humanistic Psychology Emerges in 50s, 60s, and 70s as response to mechanistic and deterministic theories of Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism Came to be seen as third wave in American psychology More optimistic and self-determining vision forAmerican psychology Humanistic theorists: Carl Rogers andAbraham Maslow Argued that humans are motivated by higher purposes that distinguish them from rest of animal kingdom Supreme motivator is striving to actualize the perfect self CARL ROGERS’THEORY Humanistic psychology became big in Chicago in 1950s after Rogers published major work: Client- Centered Therapy: It’s Current Practice, Implications, and Theory PSYC 332­ Introduction to Personality  Client-centered therapy: emphasis on therapist warmth and sincerity, empathy, acceptance, role playing, and dignity of the client- these principles have been adopted by many fields in clinical practice and education Rogers’theory: the person must be understood from the perspective of his or her phenomenal field. Phenomenal field: panorama of person’s experience and subjective apprehension of reality- overall frame of reference- this is where the roots of behavior are Idea that there is one basic striving in live- organismic enhancement: each person’s mandate in life is to become all that they can become and fulfill their inner potential Fully functioning person (FFP): person who is able to fulfill their potential- person is aware of the different facets of their life and able to integrate experience into coherent whole- leads to life that is rich in emotional experience and self-discovery- operates according to the Organismic valuing principle: experiences in accord with basic organismic-actualizing tendency are viewed as satisfying and thus approached and maintained- the experiences that are contrary to actualization and do not promote growth are avoided Unconditional positive regard: FFP is likely to get a lot of this- has been loved and accepted by others in uncritical and non-contingent manner. Regard from others promotes basic self-regard- it is important that each person be positively regarded by self and others Regard is often conditional- we are appreciated and liked based on things that we do- leads to apprehensions of: Conditions of worth: we come to believe that certain aspects of our experience/ being are worthy and others are not- ex. if constantly praised about beauty or school performance, come to think these aspects are positive parts of our self structure Person will want to build self-image based on what other important people (who provide us with positive regard) urge us to adopt Internal (unconscious) conflicts still arise but instead of being caused by forces of ego or drives for sex or aggression- come from having to revise self-image to deny something we like, because it is not being well- received by those people important to us (no positive regard) Rogers more optimistic than Freud about possibility of living without conflict Suggested FFP lives without conditions of worth and has fully accepted the self unconditionally ABRAHAM MASLOW’S PSYCHOLOGY OF BEING Unlike Rogers, Maslow grew up isolated and unhappy in economically deprived family Earned PhD under Harry Harlow on sexual behavior of monkeys Formulated humanistic alternative in psychology as result of personal conversion experience: witnessed beggars parade for support after bombing of Pearl Harbor- vowed to study people who were psychologically healthiest and prove that humans were capable of good, not just destructiveness Shared Rogers’view about self-actualization (this was actually his term- he coined it) Theorized that need for ‘self-actualization’is undergeared by four other kinds of needs forming need hierarchy. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Progression if lower needs are satisfied- Need Characteristics Regression if lower needs are not satisfied. 1) Self-Actualization Fulfillment of unique potentials 2) Esteem Achievement, competence, approval, recognition, prestige, status 3) Love & Belongingness Intimate relationships, social groups, friends, acceptance and love from others 4) Safety Protection from environment, housing, clothing, crime security 5) Physiological Hunger, thirst, elimination, warmth, fatigue, pain avoidance, sexual release PSYC 332­ Introduction to Personality  An important feature of Maslow’s self-actualized person is their proclivity for Peak experiences: wonderful moments of happiness, ecstasy, and transcendence. SApeople have more of these than rest of population In peak experiences, people perceive from standpoint of B-cognition (being-cognition): experience or object is seen as a whole- as complete unit, detached from relations, usefulness, and purpose- percept is fully attended to and experience can be ego-transcending (forget the self and live in the moment) – disorientation of time and space- Perceiving as if the experience is all that existed at the moment. Higher needs cannot be addressed until lower needs are satisfied. Can’t fulfill innate potential until basic levels of the hierarchy are taken care of. Some Characteristics of the Self-Actualizing Person 1) Superior perception of reality 2) Increased acceptance of self, others, and nature 3) Increased spontaneity 4) Increased detachment and desire for privacy 5) Greater freshness of appreciation and richness of emotional reaction 6) Increased autonomy and resistance to conformity 7) Higher frequency of peal experiences 8) Increased identification with the human species 9) Improved interpersonal relationships 10) More democratic character structure 11) High levels of creativity INTRINSIC MOTIVATIONAND SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY We value peak experiences for the intensely positive feelings and their ability to bring us best of life Peak experiences are self-reinforcing: good feelings that accompany them are the goal themselves, and intrinsically motivating: no outside incentive or motivation is necessary Research on intrinsic motivation: found providing incentive and rewards for intrinsically enjoyable behaviors may undermine them (people won’t want to do them anymore)- also decrease performance and person’s perceived freedom of being able to do what they want Motivation Research by Deci (1971) Found that college students who were paid to correctly solve intrinsically interesting puzzles chose to play with the puzzles less during a free choice period than did a control group who did not receive monetary rewards for puzzle solving- also enjoy task less and finding it less interesting if paid Conclusion: extrinsic reward decreased intrinsic motivation- reward undermined natural interest in the puzzle Study by Lepper et al. (1973) found decrease in children’s intrinsic motivation when they were rewarded for their artwork Kids who had been rewarded for using certain art materials were less motivated to use the same materials days later than kids who weren’t rewarded for using those materials Amabile et al. (1976) found that college students became less interested in word games when external deadlines were imposed on them. This sort of external contingency shifts motivation for doing something from intrinsic, to extrinsic Rewards don’t always undermine intrinsic motivation Task must be intrinsically interesting for extrinsic reward to have a cost on performance PSYC 332­ Introduction to Personality  1) Reward may improve performance in a boring task 2) Not all rewards in all situations are equal: material rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation but social reinforcers (verbal praise, encouragement) can increase it 3) Depends on what aspect of behavior is being rewarded: praise for effort differs from praise for ability Self-determination theory: developed by Decu and Ryan- intrinsic motivation is energizing basis for natural organismic activity. Intrinsically motivated behaviors are experiences with full sense of choice (they are self-determined) Controlled behavior: occurs when person acts to meet demands of internal or external force- person does not truly want to do it Deci & Ryan on Self-determination theory: 1) Believe self-determination begins at birth Infant has nascent self: vital core of personality that contains potential for expansion- to overtake boundaries and have experiences- expand the self and develop Self-determined behavior enhances the self and in tern continues to encourage self-involvement in behavior Feel like you are the author of your own life 2) Believe it is driven by three basic psychological needs: Need Characteristics 1) Competence Need to feel in control outcome of events and mastery for dealing with their environment 2)Autonomy Need to feel that one is independent of external pressures and able to relate to world as original vs. pawn 3) Relatedness Need to care for others and feel that others are relating to us in mutually supportive ways and feel coherent involvement with social world These three needs generate self-determined behavior- which promotes organismic integration (development of the self) Two facets of organismic integration: 1) Utility of the self 2) Integration into social order Distinction between SDT/ organismic integration and Personality congruence: extent to which person’s goals are consistent with one another and thus work together Organismic integration: extent to which person’s goals are self-determined and consistent with organismic needs When goals are linked to needs for autonomy, competence, or relatedness- organismic integration is enhanced Study by Sheldon & Kasser found that students who scored high on organismic integration report more positive daily moods, heightened vitality, and engagement in meaningful daily activities As people strive to attain goals that contribute to needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness: experience higher levels of mental health & adjustment, self-actualization, and physical well-being. The inverse is also true: pursuing goals that are not in line with the basic 3 needs are associated with lower psychological well-being (ex. American dream is an extrinsic goal and chasing it does not necessarily promote well being) Kasser & Ryan found that college with aspirations for financial success, physical attractiveness, and social recognition were associated with lower vitality and self-actualization and more physical symptoms Inverse was also true: intrinsic aspirations for self-acceptance, affiliation, community-feelings, and physical health were associated with higher well-being and less distress PSYC 332­ Introduction to Personality  According to Deci & Ryan development of the self is dialectic between person and social world- three dimensions are particularly important: 1) Autonomy support: the environment may encourage choice and innovation of behavior or it may not- better outcomes for psychological adjustment and mental health if it IS 2) Structure: structured environment provide clear guidelines about which behaviors lead to which outcomes and gives actor feedback about how well they are doing in the environment 3) Involvement: degree to which significant others are interested in and devote time and energy to relationship High levels of autonomy support, moderate structure and involved others is optimal environment to encourage self-determined behavior and organismic integration THE DIVERSITYVIEW Overview of the views Psychoanalytic view: basic drives for sexuality and aggression govern behavior Humanistic view: People strive to become self-determining and self-actualized organisms Diversity view: humans are motivated by many different things- everyone is different HENRY MURRAY’S THEORY OF NEEDS Most well-known representative of diversity tradition in study of human motivation Murray’s 1938 conception of needs: Human lives must always be understood in context of time: people live in response to past and anticipation of future Directedness of human lives becomes apparent over time: gives behaviors a purposeful sequence of action Things that direct and select ways in which humans organize lives and bind time: Stems from within organism and environment Organism: basic physiological and psychological needs Environment: situational constraints/ opportunities for press: need-expression Press: tendency in the environment to facilitate or obstruct expression of a need (can be a person or feature of situation) Alpha press: made up of characteristics in environment as they exist in reality or as disclosed objectively Beta press: person’s subjective impression of characteristics in environment: always matter of interpretation Thema: when particular need repeatedly interacts with particular press over extended time period So human motivation must be understood in terms of interactions of needs and press to produce themas Murray’s definition of a need: construct (fiction or hypothetical concept) which stands for a force (of unknown nature) which organizes perception, appreciation, thinking, striving, and action in a way that transforms existing unsatisfying in a certain direction This is similar to Freud in that it adopts tension-reduction: tension for a need builds up and is then reduced when need is satisfied. Differed from Freud with types of needs: 1) Vicerogenic needs: physiological wants: air, water, sleep 2) Psychogenic needs: autonomy, achievement, play (he identified 20) 3) Subsidiary needs: a need that operates in service of another (ex. act aggressively to satisfy need for pain-avoidance). Some of Murray’s Psychogenic Needs: Achievement, Affiliation, Aggression, Autonomy, Dominance, Exhibition, Harm avoidance, Nurturance, Order, Play, Sentience, Sex, Loving support, Understanding… Needs can either compete or be in harmony with each other Needs also interact w/ traits: needs establish goals: traits describe behavioral means by which goals will be met (needs tell us WHY, traits tell us HOW) THE TATAND THE PSE PSYC 332­ Introduction to Personality  Most popular and influential method of Murray’s methods for studying personality ThematicApperception Test (TAT): person is presented with series of ambiguous picture cure and asked to compose response to each (orally or in writing)- projective test because internal desires of person are projected onto ambiguous picture cue Murray believes this reveals hidden themes of personality: Murray’s guidelines for interpreting stories told in response to TAT pictures: 1) Hero of story should be identified 2) Consider heroes motives, trends, and feelings Pay attention to story content reflecting psychogenic needs 3) Note forces in hero’s environment that impinge or facilitate need-expression 4) Outcomes of stories can reveal whether person feels their needs have potential to be fulfilled 5) Take note of recurrent environments-press 6) Determine person’s feelings about certain kinds of people/ aspects of environments through story In clinical setting: TAT administered by having client sit and respond to cards administered by psychologist For research: test modified for group administration and designed to assess particular personality constructs- results then content-analyzed based on scoring system pegged to particular personality construct Called the Picture Story Exercise (PSE): used as indicator of psychogenic needs/ motives- three main ones are: 1) Achievement: drive to do better 2) Power: drive to have an impact 3) Intimacy: drive to feel closer to other people Personality Psychologist McClelland’s definition of a motive: recurrent preference or readiness for particular quality of experience which energizes, directs, and selects behavior in certain situations (I think this is already in the notes somewhere :P) ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION McClelland & Atkinson used PSE to assess differences in achievement motivation Most important innovation of their approach: derivation and validation of objective, reliable, and quantitative system to score PSE stories for achievement motivation Original studies Experimental condition: administer cognitive tests to college students and told them they would be indicative of their general intelligence and leadership ability- in order to arouse achievement thoughts Neutral condition: students administered same task but told they were newly developed and not valid measures of anything (assumed that this would arouse less achievement motivation) - Found that the stories of students for whom achievement was aroused reflected more themes of striving to achieve - This, along with results from other studies and refinements helped develop scoring system for the PSE Scoring system revealed individual differences within groups Individual differences study by McClelland people are administered PSE in neutral conditions- stories then scored according to standard system developed by M andA Motives fall into distribution ranging from high to low Assumed that each person’s natural level of achievement motivation would be captured in neutral conditions Support for construct validity of the system: People who score high act differently than those who don’t High scorers: show high performance in moderately challenging tasks that provide immediate feedback concerning success and failure, efficient in many kinds of performance- cut corners to maximize productivity, high self control, future time perspective, thrive on personal challenge, restless, innovative, and drawn to change PSYC 332­ Introduction to Personality  Also drawn to careers in business- Study by McClelland found men high in achievement motivation in college became employed in small businesses years later Also associated with success in the business world Reasons business is good match for achievement motive: Requires risk-taking Personal responsibility for performance Feedback for costs and profits Innovative ways to make products/ provide services Hallmarks of entrepreneurship characterize behavior and attitudes of people high in achievement motivation Childhood correlates (see more on pg. 284-table 7.5): reared in family with high standards for performance, scheduled feedings, stringent toilet training Societal and Historical Differences inAchievement Motivation To assess achievement motivation for a society- analyze their folktales and textbooks PSE style- thought to reflect cultures and values of a society Study by McClelland (1961) on Achieving Society collected 2 and 4 grade readers published from 1920-1929 from diff countries and scored for achievement themes Found that achievement themes in children readers of 1920s positively correlated with index of economic growth Economic growth between 1929-1950 also more pronounced in countries who emphasized achievement in 1920s children readers High achievement countries: Turkey, Isreal, India Low achievement countries: Italy, Belgium, Algeria Another indicator of economic vitality: proliferation of inventions & innovations Charms & Moeller (1962) found the rise and decline of US patents issued between 1810-1950 parallels rise & decline of achievement imagery in American children readers Same parallel found between achievement imagery in popular English literature and amount of coal imported by England in 1550s-1800s Also: among 39 preliterate tribes 75% of those with high achievement content in folktales had some full- time entrepreneurs vs. 38% of those with low achievement content POWER MOTIVATION Power Motive: recurrent preference for having impact on other people- desire to feel stronger, more masterful, more influential than others Unlike achievement motive- directs behavior in predictable ways Also assessed via PSE Winter (1973) derived coding system for power motivation from comparing stories written by people under power arousal and neutral conditions Power themes in stories involve characters having strong impact on one another either positively or negatively Questionable construct validity for this one: there are two different pictures for people high in power motivation: 1) Aggression: exploitative interpersonal relationships, profligate sexuality (in men) 2) Membership in voluntary organizations: efforts to make positive contributions to groups & society and creative problem solving So can manifest in in destructive/ immature ways or constructive/ mature ways Study by Fodor & Smith (1982) investigated how high power motivation students direct decisions of others in group decision-making Had focus groups about whether company should market new microwave oven Leader was appointed in each group of 5- half scored very high on power motive, half scored very low Half the groups were given opportunity to win group reward for superior performance (high group cohesiveness) and half were not (low group cohesiveness) 3 Dependent variables assessed: 1) Number of facts from sheets shared in group discussion 2) Number of alternative proposals made by group for marketing microwave PSYC 332­ Introduction to Personality  3) Level of moral concern evidenced by group (ex. negative effects of radiation on health) Groups with high power motivation leader: offered fewer facts, fewer proposals, and less moral concern Level of group cohesiveness did not influence results Authors’interpretations of findings: high power motivation leaders encourage group-think: hasty decision-making characterized by diffusion of responsibility, failure to consider long-term ramifications, and domination by leader. Study by Langer & Winter (2001) on real life hypothetical negotiation scenarios found that high power motivation people were less likely to offer concessions and compromises Childhood correlates of Power motivation (see more on pg. 287-table 7.6): reared in family where parents were permissive about sex and aggression People who rise to high influence positions tend to score high on power motivation Influential study by Winter et al. (1987, 1996) studied inaugural address of all US presidents for achievement, power, and intimacy motivation Power motivation was positively associated with presidential greatness and number of historically significant decisions made Also more likely to lead US into war – power motivation often associated with war Presidents high in power motivation: Truman, JFK, Reagan Personal lives of high motivation people: research findings Men have problems in romantic relationships w/ women Well-educated women marry successful men Positively associated with marital satisfaction in women Higher degree of marital dissatisfaction and divorce rate among men Cause of mens’problems may be latent fear of women and control they exert Men express more themes of ‘feminine evil’in fantasies When asked to draw women, produce frightening sketches with exaggerated sexual characteristics Studies by McClelland et al. on power motivation & susceptibility to disease Association is complex- need for power increases person’s vulnerability to disease if need for power is inhibited Especially vulnerable are ppl with these characteristics: 1) High power motivation 2) Low intimacy motivation 3) High self-control (activity-inhibition which may block expression of power) 4) High levels of power-related stress High power motivation ppl show higher activation of SNS when frustrated or position of having impact Study by McClelland (1979) found power motivation to be associated with higher blood pressure (61% of men with high power+self-control score on PSE in 30s had higher blood pressure 20 yrs later vs 23% of low power men) Study by McClelland & Jemmot (1980) administered PSE and self-report measures on health problems and life stresses to students Classified life stress as power-achievement, affiliatio
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