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Chapter 2

Chapter 2.docx

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PSYC 332
Richard Koestner

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Chapter 2: Evolution and Human Nature The study of persons must begin with Human nature Natural selection Nature gradually selects characteristics of organisms that promote survival and reproductive success Genes Segment of chromosomes found in every cell in body and are composed of deoxyribonucleic acid What is referred to as dumb luck Genetic mutations can make for accidental advantages What is the idea of a selfish gene Persons are designed to engage in behaviors that ultimately make for replication of genes that determine their design Organisms participate in business of Direct: through one’s offspring replicating genes in direct and indirect ways. Indirect: through offspring of kin Describe them Inclusive fitness Overall ability to maximize replication of genes that designed it; includes organism’s own reproductive success, but part also includes the reproductive success of close relatives` When did humans first evolve to adapt to live? Pleistocene Environment of evolutionary adaptedness The period where humans first evolved as (EEA) small sets of hunting and gathering groups According to E.O. Wilson, religion is Adaptation where shared beliefs and feelings of kinship engendered by religion may help persuade individuals to subordinate their immediate self-interest to the interests of the groups Kirkpatrick (!999, 2005)’s byproduct view of Various aspects of religion are consistent with religion fundamental features of human nature that evolved to govern specific human rlnsps and how ppl think about ppl around the world What is theory of mind Basic understanding that other people have minds filled with desires and beliefs, and that people act upon these desires and beliefs Different human groups developed different Shared many commonalities, reflecting shared cultures, but how were they similar? adaptive challenges in EEA Why did human beings survive the EEA? They were smart Cognitive niche Primary mode of adaptin to challenges of EEA was and continues to be use of human mind’s extraordinary cognitive powers 8 classes of reproductive problems Successful intrasexual competition Indiv must win out over competitors to access opposite gender for sexual reproduction Mate selection Choose mates with greatest reproductive value to maximize opportunity for passing genes Successful conception Must engage in necessary social and sexual behaviors to fertilize Mate retention Retain mate, long-term mating strategies Reciprocal dyadic alliance formation Indiv must develop rlnsp with mate to certain degree of cooperation and reciprocity Coalition building and maintenance Indiv must cooperate with others whose interests aligns his Parental care and socialization Engage in actions that ensure survival and reproductive success of offspring Extraparental kin investment Sacrifice self interests to promote survival and reproductive success of nondescendant genetic relatives Why did sexual activity evolve to be extremely So people will engage in it often, ensuring that pleasureable offspring will be produced Distal (evolutionary) reason for sexual activity Distal: replicate genes vs proximate (individual) motivation for sex Proximate: because it feels good Why is the prime reason for mating Producing offspring to carry genes What are behavioral strategies Manifestations of human desire Males vs females in terms of speed of Males = fast, females = slow because male’s reproduction single reproductive venture is short lived consisting of copulation, but females included at minimum copulation, gestation, and lactation Promiscuity in males vs females Males more promiscuous because they have more partners than do women Choice of sexual partners and dates for males Males much less discriminating in choice of and females partner BUT they held much stricter criteria for a casual date Sexually withholding behaviors vs sexually Former: men should be upset with women aggressive behaviors refusing sex Latter: women should be upset with men being addicted to sex In Buss (1989a)’s study with college students Men report that women have sexually and newly weds with their lists, what did he withholding behaviors but women didn’t report find about sexually withholding behaviors and more sexually aggressive behaviors in men. aggressive behavior? What did he find after? Most upsetting things weren’t really related to sex. For women, mostly neglectance, insulting, for men it was moodiness and self-absorption in women What does evolutionary theory say about Females tend to choose men from higher males and females in choosing mate status and significant material resources, men tend to choose young women Buss (1988)’s study on attraction of males and Women aimed at enhancing physical females in college attractiveness whereas men more likely to display expensive possession and brag achievements What is one motivated strategy for attracting Expression of creativity romantic partners shared by males and females Creativity in men vs women Men show higher levels of creativity in short or long term romantic involvements, women showed higher creativity only in response to long-term committed rlnsps socioanalytic theory Human beings are biologically predisposed to live in social groups that are variously organized into status hierarchies What does the biology of sexual reproduction For men, impregnate as many females as dictate possible For women, choose carefully who will provide reliable care and assistance to maximize change of offspring growing and passing genes Sociosexuality Restricted: Insists on commitment and closeness in rlnsps prior to engaging in sex with romantic partner Unrestricted: sex with anyone is fine Simpson and Gangestad’s research on college College students tend to score towards students and sociosexuality unrestricted end Unrestricted sociosexuality in men due to Narcissistic tendencies Evolutionary views of unrestricted and Unrestricted: enhancing reproductive abilities restricted sociosexuality? of surviving male offspring Restricted: enhancing parental investment In Hogan’s socioanalytic theory, Character Character structure: person’s characteristic structure vs role structure ways of displaying self to family members Role structure: person’s characteristic ways of displaying self to one’s colleagues, friends, peers and childr
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