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PSYC 332 (129)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5.docx

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PSYC 332
Richard Koestner

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Chapter 5: Five Basic Traits ­­­ in the Brain and in Behavior Extraverts and introverts in terms of Extraverts have more friends than introverts friendships but introverts might have deeper friendships with few friends extraverts vs introverts in speed and Extraverts: speed over accuracy; geared to accuracy? Respond and inspect? respond Introverts: accuracy over speed; geared to inspect Extroverts vs introverts in positive and Extraverts report more positive affect than negative affects? Why? introverts, but do not necessarily report less negative affect  less responsive to punishment Pearce-McCall and Newman (1986)’s Extraverts who had been punished placed experiment with reward pretreatment and larger wagers whereas introverts placed less punishments for wagers wagers, but extraverts and introverts did not differ in their betting behavior following the reward pretreatment Extraverts and mood regulation Extraverts better able to regulate mood Hemenover and his lab on good moods found Good moods lasted longer in people high on E that Lischetzke and Ei (2006)’s experiment with Extraverts felt more pleasant emotion and less extraverts and Life is Beautiful negative emotion after film than did introverts Barrett (1997)’s experiment on retrospective Extraverts tended to recall even more positive ratings of moods moods tha they reported during the 90-day period What is path analysis Enables researcher to sort out statiscally both direct and indirect effects of variables on one another Path analysis of extraversion Significant direct effect of extraversion on social competence and significant direct effect of social competence on happiness. Extraversion therefore has an indirect effect on happiness Lucas and Diener (2001)’s experiment on Extraverts reported greater happiness than did happiness ratings in different situations with introverts when engaging in positive extraverts experiences with other people Brandstatter (1994)’s results on extraverts and Extraverts associated with positive affect in introverts in social and alone situations social situations but extraverts reported significantly lower level so positive emotions in alone situations compared to introverts To be especially sensitive to rewards is…. To be especially sensitive to social rewards because human rewards occur in social context Four related factors of sensation seeking 1) Thrill and adventure seeking 2) Experience seeking 3) Disinhibition (pursuit of pleasure through parties, sex, and drinking) 4) Boredom susceptibility What is enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) Helps regulate level of neurotransmitters in body by breaking down neurotransmitters in synapse high sensation seeking vs low sensation high: lower levels of MAO, experience higher seeking levels of neurotransmitters (Especially dopamine) in nervous system low: higher levels of MAO, less inhibition and control over behavior, thoughts, and emotions What is the curse of the Karamazovs Emotions fluctuate extremely in very little time College students high in N report More stress symptoms and higher levels of homesickness Bolger and Schilling (1991)’s study on daily High-N adults were more distressed than low- stressors and neuroticism. N adults 3 possible sources of distress High N appears to expose individuals to greater number of stressful daily events reactivity to stressful events unrelated to stressful events Reactivity and neuroticism Reactivity in High N adults is due to ineffective coping strategies Neurotic cascade Five different processes reinforce each other in neuroticism to cause buildup and strong release of neg emotion in daily life The Factors of neurotic cascade Hyperreactivity High in n are more sensitive to signals of punishment and negative affect in their environment Differential exposure High in N experience negative events more frequently Differential appraisal High in N see world through a glass darkly Mood spillover Negative feelings in one area of life spill over into next Sting of familiar problems brings back old psychological issues and conflicts that never seem to get resolved Neuroticism and disclosure of intimacy Low in N adjusted level of intimacy to correspond fellow student but high in N didn’t Twenge found that scores on neuroticism- Increased based scales _____ steadily over time frame she sampled Magnus, Diner, Fujita, and Pavot (1993): N tends to cause stressful events, not the relation between stressful events and reverse neuroticism Bolger (1990)’s experiment with medical Students high in N tended to cope with stress students coping with stress of MCAT and by daydreaming, engaging in fantasies of neuroticism and anxiety escape, or wallowing in self-blame and levels of anxiety increased but low in N prepared for exam, asked for help, and anxiety levels didn’t increase much But both groups didn’t differ in results Neuroticism and performance levels of MCAT Neuroticism not associated with performance levels What is threshold of transmarginal inhibition Point at which the dog began to inhibit responses to increased stimulation Inhibition and strong/weak nervous system Strong: higher levels of stimulation required because inhibition occurred Weak: reached threshold much quicker Reticular activating system (RAS) Network of nerve fibers ascending from spinal cord to thalamus, primitive part uninvolved in thinking and other higher cortical functions, responsible for general arousal, regulating patterns of wakefulness and attention RAS and introverts/extraverts Introverts are more highly aroused than extraverts and thus RAS is set at higher level Introvert tends to ____ increases in arousal, Avoid; seek them out whereas extraverts tend to _____ Sedation for introverts/extraverts Introverts somewhat more difficult to sedate than extraverts, requiring higher dosage Sedation threshold is significantly higher for Dysthymics; hysterics ____ (introverted N) than ______ (extraverted N) Eysenck’s lemon drop test with extraverts and Extreme extraverts show little or not salivation introverts increase in response to lemon juice, whereas extreme introverts show increment of almost 1 gram of saliva Geen (1984) noise levels and Extraverts chose higher level of noise extraverts/introverts stimulation and performed better in presence of intense noise, whereas introverts performed better at low levels of noise Holmes (1967)’s experiment with eye’s When bright light shone to introvert, pupil papillary response in extraverts/introverts contraction occurred significantly more quickly than extravert, but extraverts showed faster pupil dilation when exposed to dark conditions Level of automatic responding of eyes pupil in Introverts exhibit an avoidance of high levels extraverts and introverts suggests of stimulation whereas extraverts stimulus hunger What is the basic Eysenckina idea about E is linked to stable, traitlike differences in extraversion general levels of arousal Reinforcement sensitivity theory Focused on traits of impusivity and anxiety Brains of high/low impulsive, high/low anxiou
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