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Chapter 3

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PSYC 332
Richard Koestner

Chapter 3: Social Learning and Culture Positive reinforcement Rewarding socially desirable behavior How can everyone be considered equal Given right kind of environment, anybody can rise to top, or at least to position of individual respectability Skinner argued that human behavior and Products of social learning in culture persons’ live are primarmily Behaviorism Observable behavior is learned and shaped by environment Who found behaviorism John Watson What is doctrine of tabula rasa All humans are psychologically equal and born with a blank slate, person is shaped by environment According to tabula rasa, why might Individual differences in personality are a individuals differ? function of different environmental exposures What motivates us to learn We learn in order to obtain pleasure and avoid pain What is Epicureanism Freedom from pain and pursuit of gentle pleasures and peace of mind were hallmarks of the Good Life What is utilitarianism Equality for all, pragmatic and nondogmatic, principles need to be flexible to accommodate changing ethical circumstances; maximum pleasure, minimum pain Associationism Purports that various objects and ideas that are contiguous in time or space come to be associated with each other in meaningful units What is classical conditioning Hungry dog learns to salivate in response to a neutral stimulus (a tone) because that neutral stimulus has associated with a stimulus (meat) that typically elicits salivation naturally Stimulus generalization Expansion of conditioned response so that it is evoked in response to a wide variety of stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus in some way Higher-order conditioning Conditioned stimuli, which have obtained their elicitng power through associations with unconditioned stimuli , come to be associated with other neutral stimuli, which themselves become conditioned stimuli by virtue of association Example of higher-order conditioning Young man may develop aversion to particular brand of women’s cologne because that was the cologne his mother wore the summer he broke up with his girlfriend, but can also produce emotionally positive associations What is instrumental conditioning Operant conditioning  behavior is modified by its consequences Extinction Previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced; eventually the behavior decreases and drops to baseline levels Shaping Emit complex response by reinforcing successive approximations to behaviors that make up complex response Final response may be shaped b rewarding organism for simple component response that make it up Continuous reinforcement Delivering reinforcement after every instance of particular response Partial reinforcement Interval reinforcement schedules administer reinforcement after a particular reinforcement after a particular number of responses; more resistant to extinction Discriminant stimuli When these stimuli are present , certain behaviors are likely to be reinforced, while others may even be punished Generalization Certain response patterns may be reinforced in great variety of environmental Conditioned generalized reinforcers Reinforcers that acquire their power because of their association with a variety of other reinforcers (e.g. money) 2 general classes of social reinforcers Stimulation rewards Receiving attn from others; rewards merely indicate that others are responding in some way to self Affective rewards Receiving respect, praise, and affection; rewards constitute emotional response from others Social-learning theories Emphases of behaviorism but blend greater emphasis on cognitive variables and social rlnps According to Rotter, how did he relate humans Viewed person as actively constructing his to reality? own reality, rather than merely passively responding to it What is the key concept to Rotter’s social- Expectancy – subjectivity held probability that learning theory? a particular reinforcement will occur as the outcome of a specific behavior Locus of control Individual differences in extent to which a person believes that reinforcements are contingent on his behavior Internal locus of control Expect reinforcements and rewards to follow their own actions  our behavior controls consequences that follow External locus of control Expects that his behavior will not lead to predictable reinforcement How do you measure locus of control I-E scale Rotter’s IE scale assumes that Locus of control is a broad, generalized factor Internal locus of control is associated with Many positive outcomes in life, before better academic achievement to better interpersonal rlnsps What happens when internal locus of control is Person may encounter difficulties and report in nonresponsive environment lower levels of satisfaction, compared with people who have an external locus of control Reinforcement value Subjective attractiveness of a particular reinforcement What is behavioral potential (BP) Likelihood that a particular person will perform a given behavior, equals the combination of expectancy (E) and the reinforcement value (RV) that the behavior holds for that person What is the formula for BP BP = E + RV People are likely to act to obtain goals for what a) They expect to be reinforced (high E) b) The expected reinforcements are highly valued (RV) Mischel’s cognitive/social learning/person Characteristic strategies or styles of variables approaching situations, and are thought to grow out of indiv’s previous experiences with both situations and rewards Mischel described other cognitive/social learning variables such as Competencies What a person knows and can do Encoding strategies Manner in which ppl interpret info Self-regulatory systems and plans Ways we regulate and guide our own behavior through self-imposed goals and standards Behavior has to do with _________ than with Performance; learning _______ per se What did Bandura argue about rewards and They directly shape what ppl will do but they punishments? may not always be implicated in what people learn Observational learning Routinely learn by observing and perform by imitating what they see Four sequential component steps Step 1 – attentional process Certain features of model may increase likelihood that the person will notice or pay attn to what model is doing Step 2 – retention process Person must be able to encode, remember, and make sense of what he or she observes if learning is to occur Step 3 – motor reproduction processes Capabilities to performing what is observed and availability of such performance in observer’s repertoire of behavior Step 4 – motivational processes Observer must want to imitate, use of reinforcements Reinforcement coming from external Self-reinforcement – individual observer environment can be referred to as (2 types) himself Vicarious reinforcement – seeing or imaging someone else being reinforced for the behavior Observational learning occurs within what A particular interpersonal context context In general, who are children more likely to Models of own sex, perceived as powerful, imitate and whose behavior is observed to be reinforced Self efficacy Person’s belief in our own behavioral competence in a particular situation High vs low efficacy High: strong belief that I can perform a particular behavior Low: strong belief that I cannot perform the behavior Four sources of self efficacy Performance accomplishments Past experiences of success and failures in attempts to accomplish goals Vicarious experience Witnessing other people’s successes and failures Verbal persuasion Being told by others that one can or can’t master a task Emotional arousal Person’s feelings of self-efficacy are influenced by degree and quality of emotional arousal in a given performance situation Manning and Wright (1983) studied 52 Women who manifested in high self-efficacy pregnant women who
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